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50 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 sites where the Nervous system interfaces with the Endocrine system?
1. Autonomic nervous system
2. Hypothalamic-Ant pituitary
3. Hypothalamic-Post pituitary
What are the 3 ways that the ANS interfaces with the endocrine system?
1. Nerves
2. Renin
3. Adrenal medulla
What are the cell bodies that send signals to the anterior pituitary?
Parvocellular cell bodies
What hypothalamic nuclei contain parvocellular cell bodies?
Medial nuclei
Where do the medial hypothalamic nuclei that contain parvocellular cell bodies get input from?
All over the CNS
What do parvocellular neurons make?
Releasing hormones - Neurohormones
Where are neurohormones from parvocellular neurons released?
At nerve terminals in the median eminence
Where do the neurohormones go after being released in the median eminence?
Into portal vessels to be carried to the anterior pituitary.
What are the cell bodies that send signals to the posterior pituitary?
Magnocellular cell bodies
What are the hypothalamic nuclei that house magnocellular neurons?
-Paraventricular nucleus
-SupraOptic Nucleus
What are the axons of magnocellular neurons like compared to those of parvocellular?
Longer - they extend all the way to the posterior pituitary instead of just to capillaries.
What happens when the magnocellular neurons are depolarized?
An AP travels down the axon to the posterior pituitary where the hormones stored in its terminal are released into the bloodstream.
What happens when parvocellular neurons are depolarized?
The AP travels to the median eminence where releasing factors get into the blood, then these go to the ant pit to stimulate release of stored hormones there.
What hormones are released by the posterior pituitary?
-Oxytocin
-Vasopressin (ADH)
What is Oxytocin release stimulated by?
-Cervical stretch in child birth
-Nursing
What is the effect of Oxytocin release?
-Uterine contraction
-Mammary gland contraction (milk letdown)
What stimulates Vasopressin release?
-Increased osmolarity of the ECF detected by osmoreceptors
-Decreased arterial pressure
What is the effect of Vasopressin?
Water conservation
What are the 2 inhibitory hormones released by the hypothalamus?
-PIH - prl inhibiting hormone
-SST - somatostatin which inhibits growth hormone release
What are the 4 releasing hormones from the hypothalamus?
CRH - stimulates POMC's
TRH - stimulates TSH
GnRH - stimulates FSH/LH
GHRH - stimulates GH
What stimulates CRH release from the hypothalamus?
Stress
What does CRH do?
Stimulates ACTH release from the pituitary
What does ACTH do?
Stimulates cortisol release from the adrenal cortex
What does Cortisol do?
Inhibits CRH/ACTH release
What are the 4 physiological effects of Cortisol?
1. Gluconeogenesis
2. Protein mobilization
3. Fat mobilization
4. Stabilizes lysosomes
Why is it good to make glucose, mobilize fat/protein and stabilize lysosomes?
Because it relieves the stress
What is Cushing's Disease?
Overproduction of cortisol due to pituitary tumors that secrete ACTH
What is the release pattern of CRH?
Circadian
Predominant symptom of Cushing's
moon face
What is the main controller of thyroid hormone release from the thyroid gland?
Negative feedback by T3/T4
What happens when the body needs more T3/T4?
The hypothalamus releases TRH which makes the pituitary less sensitive to circulating T3/T4 so it can make/release TSH
What are the physiologic effects of T3/T4?
Increased metabolism
What will the temperature of a person with hyperthyroidism be? Hypothyroidism?
Hyper = Hot

Hypo = cold
What is the pathophysiological example of hyperthyroidism?
Grave's disease
What is Grave's disease?
An autoimmune disease where antibodies bind the TSH receptor on follicle cells and activate T3/T4 synthesis
What is another effect of the autoimmune reaction in Grave's?
Exophthalmia
What is Exophthalmia in grave's disease not due to?
The increase in thyroid hormones
What is a key diagnostic sign of hyperthyroidism?
Low TSH and high T3/T4
What type of thyroid conditions get goiters?
Either hypo or hyper
Why would a person with hypothyroidism get a goiter?
Because the thyroid hypertrophies in its valiant attempt to produce T4
How is growth hormone release from the anterior pituitary regulated?
-GHRH stimulates release
-Somatostatin inhibits it
What are the physiological effects of growth hormone? (2)
1. Release of IGF1 from the liver
2. Release of local growth factors in long bones
When does GH cause long bone growth?
Only before puberty
What will GH excess result in if it happens before puberty?
Gigantism
What will GH excess result in if it happens after puberty?
Acromegaly
What is the primary controller of prolactin release from the anterior pituitary?
Dopamine released by the hypothalamus which inhibits Prl release
What inhibits Dopamine release?
Nursing and pregnancy
What does Prolactin do?
Stimulates milk production - not ejection
2 physiologic effects of AVP:
-Decreased free water clearance (increased water reabsorption)
-Vasoconstrictor
What is the difference between Diabetes insipidus and psychogenic polydipsia?
Diab insipidus is really a lack of ADH; psychogenic is just a lack due to excessive drinking.