Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
location of neoplasm
critical effect:
critical: pituitary adenoma
obstruction: benign/malignant neoplasm of gut
endocrine neoplasm
def and ex:
produce manifestations by elaboration of hormones
ie. pancreatic - secrete insulin - hypoglycemia
erosive and destructive growth
benign and malignant neoplasms - ulceration, infection and bleeding
what is Cancer Cachexia?
wasting syndrome - loss of body fat, lean body mass, weakness, anorexia, anemia
mechanism of cancer cachexia
Loss of appetite and alteration in fat metabolism (TNF-α), produced by macrophages and tumor cells
Cytokines (IL-1 and IFN-γ) synergize with TNF
def of paraneoplastic syndrome
Hormonal, neurological, hematological, and other clinical and biochemical disturbances associated with malignant neoplasms but not directly related to invasion by the primary tumor or its metastases.
Cushing syndrome
paraneoplastic syn assoc w/:
small cell ca of lung, pancreatic ca, neural tumors
mech: excessive production of ACTH or ACTH like peptides
Syndrome Inappropriate ADH Secretion (SIADH)
assoc w/:
small cell ca of lung, intracranial neoplasm
assoc w/:
squamous cell ca of lung, (breast, renal, ovarian, adult T cell leuk/lymp)
mech: PTHRP, IL-1, TNF-α, TGF-α
carcinoid syndrome
assoc w/:
Bronchial carcinoid, Pancreatic & gastric ca
Mech: secretion of serotonin, bradykinin
nerve and muscle syndromes
myasthenia gravis
disorders of central/periph nervous system
eton-lambert syndrome (gets better w/ exercise)
dermatologic disorders
acanthosis nigricans [gastric, lung, uterine]
dermatomyositis [bronchogenic, breast ca]
osseous, articular, soft tissue changes
Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and clubbing of fingers - bronchogenic ca
Vascular and Hematologic changes
Venous thrombosis (Trousseau’s phenomenon) noted in deep seated cancers e.g. Pancreatic; Non bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (advanced ca), Anemia
renal dysfunction
nephrotic syndrome - increased proteinuria, edema
what can mimic carcinoma?
radiation changes
what can mimic osteosarcoma?
bone healing at fracture site
ways of procuring specimen
biopsy or excision of lesion
fine needle aspiration cytology
exfloliative cytology
ways of preserving the specimen
frozen section: fresh or in saline
light microscopy: 10% neutral buffered formalin
immunofluoro: saline or Michel's fixative
molecular studies: RPMI
EM: glutaraldehyde
tissue biopsy stains?
H&E: routine biopsies
trichrome: fibrous tissue
periodic acid schiff (PAS): glycogen and fungi
gomori methamine silver (GMS): fungi
oil red o: fat
iron stain: hemosiderin
what is the concept of fine needle aspiration cytology?
cells from a mass are dislodged with a needle, smeared on slide, and read
superficial needle aspiration
what organs?
done by?
breast, thyroid, lymph node, salivary gland masses, skin tumors
pathologist or clinician
deep needle aspiration
what organs?
done by?
liver, lung, kidney, pancreas, lymph nodes
fine needle aspiration
advant: rapid interpretation, cost effective
disadvan: req's specially trained pathologists
exfoliative cytology
cancer cells have lower cohesiveness, exfoliate into body cavities
An accuracy approaching 100% can be reached in the interpretation of cytologic smears e.g?
cervical, sputum and urine, body fluids (pleural and peritoneal), bronchial brushings and washings
immunohistochemistry (IHC)
using tissue markers for diagnostic and research purposes
immunohistochemistry (IHC)
diluted Ab solution applied to tissue section, Ag-Ab rxn detected by fluoro-probe (immunofluoro) or enzymatic system (immunoperoxidase). presence/absence of antigen impacts dx
immunofluoresence: biopsies from certain sites is performed on ___
fresh frozen tissue
(kidney, skin, lung)
immunoperoxidse staining
more sensitive, permanent preparation, can be performed on paraffin embedded tissue
specific uses of immunoperoxidase?
IHC demonstrates presence of antigens in tissue sections, making it possible to investigate functional aspect and histogenesis of many dz's
types of immunoperoxidase staining
identify cell of origin
tissue specific markers
oncofetal antigens
hormones, isozymes, specific proteins, mucins, other glycoproteins
uses of IHC
identify cell of origin of neoplasm
tissue specific markers
carcinomas express
intermediate filament cytokeratin (CK)
lymphomas express
LCA - leukocyte common Ag
epithelial markers
EMA - epithelial mem Ag
CK - cytokeratin
mesenchymal markers
muscle cell marker
skeletal muscle marker
endothelial cell
Factor VIII
schwann cell
HMB 45
melan A
astrocytic and glial
GFAP - glial fibrillary acid protein
AFP - alpha fetal protein assoc w/ ?
hepatocellular and germ cell ca
CEA = carcinoembryonic Ag assoc w/
colon, bronchogenic, gastric, pancreatic carcinomas
pancreatic oncofetal antigen assoc w/
pancreatic, colon, bronchogenic, gastric
calcitonin assoc w/
medullary ca of thyroid
neuron specific enolase
small cell ca of lung, neuroblastoma
immunoglobulins (IHC)
multiple myeloma
PSA: prostate specific antigen
prostate cancer
CA 125 (IHC)
ovarian carcinoma
CA 19-9 (IHC)
colon and pancreatic carcinoma
CA 15-3 (IHC)
breast carcinoma
IHC in the management of malignant neoplasms
Categorization of an undifferentiated neoplasms:
Categorization of lymphomas and leukemias
Determination of the site of origin of a metastatic tumor
Detection of molecules that have therapeutic or prognostic significance e.g. ERBB2
molecular diagnosis can be used to distinguish benign ____ T&B cell prolif from malignant ___ proliferation
benign: polyclonal
malignant: monoclonal
molecular diagnosis can be used to determine prognosis of malignant neoplasms, ie?
amplification of c-myc, del of 1p = poorer prognosis of pt w/ neuroblastoma
molecular diagnosis can be used in detection of minimal residual disease, ie?
bcr-abl by PCR = residual dz of CML
K-ras in stool = possible recurrence of colon ca
molecular diagnosis can be used in diagnosis of hereditary predisposition to cancer, ie
germ line mut in tumor suppressor genes
flow cytometry can be used as rapid and quantitative measure of several individual cell characteristics such as __ and __.
membrane antigens and DNA content of tumor cells.
identification of cell surface antigen can be used to classify
leukemia and lymphomas
specimens for flow cytometry
fresh frozen tissue, fluids, bone marrow aspirates, irrigation of urinary bladder
___ is assoc w/ poorer prognosis (in flow cytometry)
Biochemical indicators of the presence of tumors ?
cell surface antigens, cytoplasmic proteins, enzymes and hormones
Molecules that can be detected in plasma or other body fluids are used to?
as lab test to support dx of cancer
tumor markers are used to determine
response to therapy and indicate relapse in the follow up period
Human chorionic gonadotropin (tumor marker)
Trophoblastic tumors (choriocarcinoma), non seminomatous testicular tumors.
calcitonin (tumor marker)
medullary carcinoma of thyroid
Catecholamine and metabolites Vanillylmandellic acid and Homovanillic Acid (tumor marker)
Pheochromocytoma and related tumors
Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA): (tumor marker)
increased in colorectal ca, pancreatic ca, gastric, breast, lung ca. False(+) in cirrhosis, hepatitis, Crohn's dz, ulcerative colitis
Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP): (tumor marker)
increased in hepatocellular carcinoma, non seminomatous germ cell tumors of testis. False(+) in cirrhosis, heptitis, non-toxic liver injury and pregnancy
prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) elevated in
benign prostatic hypertrophy
prostate adenocarcinoma
following digital rectal exam (blood should be drawn before or several days after DRE)
neuron specific enolase
small cell ca of lung, neuroblastoma
serum amylase
AP (alkaline phosphatase)
multiple myelomas
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid (5-HIAA)
carcinoid tumor
hepatocellular carcinoma
Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and 5’-Nucleotidase
elevated in metastatic carcinoma of the liver
Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase:
acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Ferritin: (tumor marker)
Head and Neck and hematologic malignancies