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44 Cards in this Set

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Held by Spanish claims. Main fort St. Augustine. Constant struggle with Britain over control of Florida territory. Controlled sea lanes in Mediterranean. Oldest continually inhabited European settlement in US.
1st Amendment
“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.” The First Amendment prohibits the federal legislature from making laws that:
• Establish a state religion or prefer certain religion
• Prohibit free exercise of religion
• Infringe the freedom of speech;
• Infringe the freedom of the press;
• Limit the right to assemble peaceably;
• Limit the right to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
2nd Amendment
“A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.” Amendment II prohibits infringement of "the right of the people to keep and bear arms".
3rd Amendment
“No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.” Amendment III prohibits the quartering of soldiers (military personnel) in private homes without the owner's consent in peacetime.
4th Amendment
“The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.” Amendment IV guards against unreasonable searches and seizures.
5th Amendment
“All Persons shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.” Amendment V guarantees stem from English common law as established by Magna Carta in 1215.
6th Amendment
“In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.”
7th Amendment
“In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.” Amendment VII codifies the right to jury trial in certain civil trials
8th Amendment
“Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.” Amendment VIII prohibits excessive bail or fines, as well as cruel and unusual punishment.
9th Amendment
“The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.” Amendment IX addresses rights of the people that are not specifically enumerated in the Constitution.
10th Amendment
“The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved for the States respectively, or to the people”
Toleration Act of 1649
The Maryland Toleration Act, also known as the "Act Concerning Religion" was a law passed in 1649 by the colonial assembly of the Province of Maryland mandating religious toleration of all Christian denominations. As the first such law, it is often seen as a precursor to the First Amendment. In 1649, Maryland was the most religiously diverse of the English colonies, having been founded as a Catholic haven and populated by a large number of Protestants. The Calverts, who founded Maryland, needed to attract settlers to make the colonial venture profitable, meaning that Protestants would be immigrating. In order to protect the Catholics who originally founded the colony and who were being rapidly outnumbered, the Calverts threw their support behind the Act Concerning Religion, essentially an effort to secure religious freedom for Catholics. While the Act prevented outright persecution for a long time, it failed to prevent a political struggle over the control of the colonial assembly.
Wool Act
The British Parliament's Wool Act of 1699 attempted to heighten taxation and control over colonial trade and production. It protected Britain's wool industry by limiting wool production in Ireland and forbidding the export of wool from the American colonies. The Act prohibited American colonists from exporting wool, wool yarn, or wool cloth to markets outside the colonies and also restricted the import of woolens and linens created in other areas of the British Empire. In effect, it forced all wool and wool products produced by colonies and dependent areas of the United Kingdom to be sold to British markets, and then resold to British citizens in all areas of the empire. Each sale generated taxes on these goods.
Iron Act
In American Colonial history, the Iron Act, passed around 1750, was part of the British Navigation Acts designed to slow the development of the Colonial iron industry so it wouldn't compete with the home industry. The act prohibited anyone in the colonies from manufacturing finished iron products. All pig and bar iron produced from mines in the Colonies would have to be sent to England to be manufactured, which would artificially keep the American iron industry from competing. This law, if followed, would have severely limited the emerging iron industry in the colonies, which at the time was producing one seventh of the world’s pig iron and iron products. As with other laws of the Navigation Acts, it was not observed closely and contributed to the sentiments of the American Revolution.
Sugar Act
Passed on April 5, 1764, the Sugar Act imposed a tax of sixpence per gallon on molasses in order to make English products cheaper than those from the French West Indies. Colonists had largely evaded the earlier tax by bribing local officials. The Sugar Act, passed under the leadership of British Prime Minister Lord George Grenville, reduced the tax from sixpence to threepence, but provided for the tax to be strictly enforced and expanded its scope to include wine, cloth, and other goods. The Sugar Act caused local production to increase in the colonies, but colonists viewed it as taxation without representation, and it was one of the causes leading to the American Revolution.
Declaratory Act
The Declaratory Act passed in 1766, during America's colonial period; one of a series of resolutions passed attempting to regulate the behavior of the colonies. American rebels had organized a boycott in response to the Stamp Act which called into question the right of a distant power to tax them. The Declaratory Act asserted Britain's exclusive right to legislate for and tax its colonies. The taxes were mainly used to finance war debt which had been accumulated during a recent series of wars, part of which were fought in the colonies. Colonists responded by loosely interpreting this Act and believed that this Act did not give Britain the power to tax and the Act was just a face-saving measure by Britain after the repeal of the Stamp Act 1765. This is one of the many acts that led to colonial unrest and eventually the American Revolution.
Intolerable and Coercive Acts
The Intolerable Acts, called by the British the Coercive Acts or Punitive Acts, were a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 in response to the growing unrest in thirteen American colonies, particularly in Boston, Massachusetts after incidents such as the Boston Tea Party. Enforcement of the Acts played a major role in the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War and the establishment of the First Continental Congress. It dealt with the Intolerable Acts by creating the Continental Association, which was an agreement to boycott British goods.
Judiciary Act of 1789
The United States Judiciary Act of 1789 was a landmark statute adopted on September 24, 1789 in the first session of the First United States Congress. It established the U.S. federal judiciary. The Constitution stated only that the "judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish." It made no provision for the composition or procedures of any of the courts, leaving this to Congress to decide.
Northwest Ordinance
The Northwest Ordinance passed on July 13, 1787 under the Articles of Confederation. The primary effect of the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory as the first organized territory of the United States out of the region south of the Great Lakes north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River. This division helped set the stage for the balancing act between free and slave states that was the basis of the most critical political question in American politics in the 19th century until the Civil War.
Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts were acts of Congress passed during the administration of President John Adams; his signature made them into law on July 14, 1798. They were designed to protect the United States from aliens alleged to be dangerous and to muffle internal dissent.
Navigation Acts
The English Navigation Acts were a series of laws which, beginning in 1651, restricted foreign shipping. Resentment against the Navigation Acts was a cause of the Anglo-Dutch Wars and the American Revolutionary War.
Hat Act
The Hat Act is in 1732 to control hat production by the Americans in the colonies. It specifically placed limits on the manufacture, sale, and exportation of American-made hats, which were predominantly fashioned from beaver pelts. The act also restricted hiring practices by limiting the number of workers that hatmakers could employ, and placing limits on apprenticeships. The law's effect was that Americans in the colonies were forced to buy British-made goods, and this artificial trade restraint meant that Americans paid four times as much for hats and cloth imported from Britain than for local goods.
Proclamation Act
Issued October 7, 1763 by King George III and forbade colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains to stabilize relations with North American Indians through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier.
Stamp Act
A stamp act is a law enacted by a government that requires a tax to be paid on the transfer of certain documents such as property deeds. Those that pay the tax receive an official stamp on their documents. The tax raised, called stamp duty, was first devised in the Netherlands in 1624 after a public competition to find a new form of tax. A variety of products have been covered by stamp acts including playing cards, patent medicines, checks, mortgages, contracts and newspapers. The items often have to be physically stamped at approved government offices following payment of the duty although methods involving annual payment of a fixed sum or purchase of adhesive stamps are more practical and common.
Townshend Acts
The Townshend Acts were passed in 1767 by having been proposed by Charles Townshend, as Chancellor of the Exchequer, just before his death. These laws placed a tax on common products, such as lead, paper, paint, glass, and tea. In contrast to the Stamp Act of 1765, the laws were not a direct tax, but a tax on imports. The Townshend Acts created three new admiralty courts to try Americans who ignored the law. The Acts led to outrage among the colonists and helped spark the "Liberty" seizure and riots of 1768. Opposition in the 13 strated with the slogan, "No taxation without representation," originally spoken by James Otis. Smugglers avoided the taxes by importing goods without the taxes and by organizing a boycott of the legitimate imports.
Lexington and Concord
Lexington and Concord battle is the opening of the American Revolution, April 19, 1775. British commander, Thomas Gage, sought to avoid the armed rebellion by sending royal infantry from Boston to capture colonial military stored at Concord. His plans revealed by Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Samuel Prescott, so when John Pitcairn reached Lexington, they came upon a group of militia (Minutemen).
Saratoga was a major battle of Revolutionary War, fought in 1777 in northern NY state. Benedict Arnold was leader of American offensive, forced British troops under General John Burgoyne to surrender. Turning point of the war, it increased confidence of French government in the American Forces.
Trenton and Princeton
The Continental Army won this battle. George Washington led an army of 6,000 across Delaware River, surprise attack the 1.400 men Hessians at Trenton, N.J., and captured 900 troops, then Charles Cornwallis arrived, forcing American army to retreat. At night, Washington led his men, surrounding the British, causing Cornwallis to retreat. This event restored American morale and renewed American confidence in Washington.
Quebec Act
It expanded area of Quebec to Ohio River and took away sea to sea charter, and gave it to French. Passed on June 22, 1774 by British Gov’t
The act guaranteed the use of French civil law and British criminal law, also guaranteed French Canadians the right to practice Catholicism.
Land Ordinance 1785
• Adopted by US Congress on May 20,1785, under Articles of Confederation
• Congress: no power to raise revenue by direct taxation of the inhabitants od the US
• Immediate goal of the ordinance was to raise $$ through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west od original colonies
• Land was putted into townships and sections
• Some $$$ went to free public education
Hamilton’s Financial Program
US----broke: borrowed money from foreign and American sources for the war and went unpaid
• South paid their debt, but the North wasn’t able to paid
• So theirs an idea of North not paying their debt, but south said unfair
• To make the south agree or pass this, the gov’t made a law that if they support it, then the capital would be in the south
John Smith
Saved Virginia in the beginning because of his leadership
“He who shall not work shall not eat”
Kidnapped December 1607 by Powtatan, but saved by Pocahontas
-Pawtuxet Indian interpreter and guide
-Learned English from Captain when kidnapped
-William Bradford’s Indian emissary
-also served as interpreter for Edward Winslow, the pilgrim representative, during his negotiations with Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoag
William Penn
A colonist of late 17th cen. and early 18th cen., founder of Pennsylvania
• Son of British admiral, became Quaker
• The British gov’t repaid a debt to Penn by giving him Pennsylvania, where he established a colony with religious toleration.
• Many Quakers, persecuted in England, settled in Pennsylvania. Had friendly relationships with Native Americans.
• Also wasn’t fully appreciated
Cotton Mather
American puritan leader assisted his father at Boston’s North Church. Help, unpopular british governor of Massachusetts, Edmund Andros (1689), argued “spectral evidence”--------trials
Edmund Andros
-A puritan minister, in 1693, during the Salem witch trials, he defended the death- sentence verdicts of several trials for witchcraft
-president of Dominion of New England
• Ottawa chief 1763
• Led tribes allied with France to drive the British out of Ohio River valley
• Wiped out all British west of the Appalachians and killed about 2,000 ppl.
• British commander gave blankets infected with smallpox to the Indians
• Britain realized that they need to stabilize relations with Indians and keep troops stationed in the colonies
William Pitt
“Great Commoner”- common people. Admired him
In 1757, he became a leader in the London governmentt -----“Organizer of victory”
1758- Expedition to Louisbourg-1st British victory in the war
- sent James Wolfe to Quebec, defended the French
George Grenville
• Prime minister
• Ordered the British navy to enforce the Navigation Laws
• Secured the Sugar Act of 1764
• Imposed a stamp tax 1765- Stamp Act- revenues to support the new military force
• Had admiralty courts
• “no taxation without representation”----response: Americans were “virtually represented”
Eli Whitney
US inventor, engineer……etc. He is best remembered for inventing the cotton gin, which led to greatly increased production of the short-staple cotton grown in much of the south, making region prosperous. The most important innovation: “mass production of interchangeable parts”
Shoshone Indian guide who led the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Having been captured by Hidatsa Indians, she had been separated from her people foe nearly 10 years. Guiding Lewis and Clark on their expedition to explore territory gained through the Louisiana Purchase.
Lord Baltimore
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
Paxton Boys
The Paxton Boys were a group of backcountry Scots-Irish frontiersmen from the area around the central Pennsylvania village of Paxtang (Paxton) who formed a vigilante group in response to the American Indian uprising known as Pontiac's Rebellion. The Paxton Boys felt that the government of colonial Pennsylvania, dominated by Quaker pacifists, was negligent in providing them with protection, and so decided to take matters into their own hands. On December 14, 1763 a group of more than fifty Paxton Boys marched on an Indian village and murdered the six Indians they found there, and burned the bloody cabin in which the killings were done
Lousiana Purchase
The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition by the United States of more than 530,000,000 acres of territory from France in 1803, at the cost of about 3¢ per acre ; $15 million in total. Doubled size of United States and allowed for United State's expansion to the Pacific; manifest destiny.