Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
gonadal sex determines ____ sex
what directs sexual differentiation
_____ sex determines phenotypic sex
_____ sex determines gonadal sex
genetic sex determines ____ sex
what hormones do ovaries secrete?
what do the hormones that the testes secrete do?
masculinize the body
stimulate development of testes
protein released from SRY
____ makes male fetus more fragile
____ boys conceived for every ___ girls
120, 100
_____ are made in the yolk sac and migrate to the genital ridge
germ cells/gamete precursors
germ cells/gamete precursors are made in the yolk sac and migrate to the _____
genital ridge
testes secrete
anti-Mullerian hormone
_____ masculinizes external genitalia
_____ masculinizes body
testicular hormones
_____ causes male phenotype
Sex-determining region of the Y chromosome
____ directs differentiation of genital ridges
SRY gene
when is SRY gene activated?
after ridges develop (4 weeks gestation)
SRY causes
production of testes
promotes ovarian development
DAX-1 on X chromosome
____ overrides DAX-1 in males
male W/M
promote W, inhibit M
promote M, inhibit W
what causes mullerian to regress
anti-mullerian hormone
anti-mullerian hormone secreted by
M develops into (3 things)
oviducts, uterus, and vagina
W develops into (4 things)
epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory ducts, and seminal vesicles
_______ causes male structures to develop, ______ causes female structures to develop
circulating testosterone, lack of testosterone
long lasting, usually permanent changes, most occur around birth and at puberty
organizational effects
short lasting, effects only occur while hormone is present
____ needed to sustain cells in SDN
SDN larger in ___ than ____
males, females
take out SDN in male rats
won’t mount females, will allow other males to mount them
Sex behavior and SDN size regulated by _____ hormones in rats
castrate at birth
SDN small
testosterone at birth in females
large SDN
large SDN
causes male sex behavior, inhibits female sex behavior
small SDN
causes lordosis
maybe gay men have smaller _____
INAH 3 may be homologous to rodent ____
INAH3 bigger in ____ than _____
males, females
one side of body is male, one side is female
Many sex differences in the brain and behavior are due to the conversion of _____ to _____ inside neurons in the brain
testosterone, estradiol
Small amounts of estradiol from female ovaries or from mom is sequestered by ______
enough estradiol at birth will...
...overpower alpha-fetoprotein and create
____ converted to ____ inside neuron
testosterone, estradiol
Many synthetic compounds used in herbicides, pesticides, etc. can mimic _____
steroid hormones
synthetic steroids can act as ______, blocking ______
contraceptives, gamete formation
synthetic steroids are
endocrine disruptors
men and women given baby dressed up as opposite sex- babies dressed as boys given guns, girls given dolls
baby X experiment
rat mothers lick the anogenital region of _____ more than _____
sons, daughters
If make rat mothers _____, they groom all the pups less
unable to smell
Male pups who are deprived of their mother’s anogenital grooming have ______
fewer SNB cells
Males who had gotten less licking had fewer _____ survive than males who had gotten more licking
motor neurons
Turner's syndrome genotype
Develop as female, but lack normal ovaries so do not enter puberty
Turner's syndrome
Generally short stature, broad chest, and cognitive deficits
Turner's syndrome
Klinefelter's syndrome genotype
Androgen insensitivity syndrome genotype
Male, but feminine body shape
Klinefelter's syndrome
female breast development
Disorder: infertile, usually learning disabilities
Klinefelter’s syndrome
Disorder: Because testes are smaller, don’t secrete much testosterone- if given early enough, can prevent effects
Klinefelter’s syndrome
Disorder: Testes develop normally because of SRY
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Disorder: AMH secretion causes Mullerian ducts to regress
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Disorder: Secreted testosterone can’t promote W ducts to produce male internal structures
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Disorder: External genitalia develops as if female, but also have testes
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Disorder: Do not menstruate, don’t have pubic hair, infertile
Androgen insensitivity syndrome
Disorder: Can affect males and females, but much more dramatic in females
Disorder: Defect in enzyme synthesizing corticosteroid hormones (causes excess T production, but not as much as testes would produce)
Disorder: M ducts develop (no AMH), but W ducts do too
Disorder: Masculanization of external genitalia in females (enlarged clitoris, fused labia)
In CAH, because they can't make adrenal corticosteroids,
negative feedback is lost, hypothalamus and pituitary start making hormones calling for adrenal steroids
____ binds to androgen receptor better than testosterone
5alpha caused by...
atypical gene
Disorder: Because of atypical gene, leads to deficiency in enzyme
5α-reductase deficiency
Disorder: In XY, testes make T to masculinize Wolffian ducts, but skin has too little reductase to produce much DHT from T
5α-reductase deficiency
Disorder: At puberty, testicular androgens further masculinize the exterior, presenting a mostly male phenotype
5α-reductase deficiency
Disorder: FOund in dominican
5α-reductase deficiency
Disorder: Little beard growth, but masculine build
5α-reductase deficiency
If a Y chromosome is present, ____ form
If no Y chromosome is present, ____ form
what overrides DAX-1?
What overrides SRY?
2 DAX-1s
to masculinize external genitalia, need
testosterone and its conversion to DHT
spinal nucleus of bulbocavernosus
hormones that rise in puberty
adrenal, gonadal sex steroids and growth hormone
what triggers gonadal secretion in puberty?
pituitary gonadotropins
Urethral folds don’t fully enclose urethra