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97 Cards in this Set

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hormone
A chemical made in one part of the body, released into bloodstream, where it reaches another part of the body and has an effect there
allomones
across species (flowers to bees)
secrete hormone(s) inside the body
endocrine glands
5 endocrine glands
pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads
Controls all endocrine glands in body
pituitary
dangles from, controlled by hypothalamus
pituitary
important in controlling gonads
anterior pituitary
important in emotional arousal for sex
medulla of adrenal gland
4 types of hormones
protein/peptide, monoamine, prostaglandins, steroids
String of amino acids bound together
protein/peptide hormones
Act similarly to neurotransmitters
protein/peptide hormones
Interact with receptor protein (large, complex protein that spans membrane) at target cell, then leaves
protein/peptide hormones
May cause target cell to release its own hormone, change gene expression
protein/peptide hormones
Important for neurotransmitters
monoamine hormones
ex of monoamine
melatonin, epinephrine/adrenaline
Need enzymes to modify amino acid to make
monoamine
Mixture of hydrocarbon and lipid
prostaglandins
Smaller than peptides/proteins
steroids
Specialized signaling molecules, need to be constructed
steroids
Interconnected rings of carbon atoms
steroids
"
Enter inside the cell (easy for them to go through membranes), both go directly to DNA to regulate gene expression"
________ --> 4 enzymatic steps --> _______ --> most steroids
cholesterol, progesterone
can turn testosterone into ____ using ____ or ____ using ______
estradiol/aromatase, DHT/5 alpha reductase
where is aromatase found?
ovary
responsible for male pattern baldness
5 alpha reductase
Testes secrete _____ such as _____ and ______
androgens, testosterone, DHT
2 classes of steroids secreted by ovaries
estrogens, progestins
promotes pregnancy
progestins
where are the progestins used to make estrogens found?
thecal cells in follicle
where is aromatase used to make estradiols found?
granulosa cell
how are estrogens made?
cholesterol --> progestins --> androgens --> estradiols
2 classes of steroids secreted by adrenal glands
glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids
where are steroids secreted from in adrenal glands?
outer layer (cortex)
negative feedback in BC
birth control pills have estrogen/progestin that tell brain you don't need gonadotropins --> no follicles stimulated --> no egg released
None
receptor agonist examples
tamoxifen, RU486
tamoxifen is an ____ agonist
estrogen
RU486 is an ____ agonist
progestin
preferred breast cancer treatment
aromatase inhibitors bind to an enzyme, but won’t change shape like the regular substrate would
____ promotes lining of uterus to support baby
progestin
2 enzyme inhibitors
aromatase inhibitors, finasteride
Treating with _____ helps menopause symptoms
estrogen
_____ + _____ = higher libido in women
estrogen, androgen
steroid hormones are ____
lipophilic
Stretch of DNA that recognizes and binds to particular steroid receptor complex
response element
steroid hormones act through ____
receptors
a large protein that binds to the steroid, so the 2 alter gene expression
receptor
___ receptor(s) for estrogen
2
___ receptor(s) for androgen
1
Only ___________ can respond to particular steroid hormone
cells that express receptor gene
Oxycontin, vasopressin made in _____, released by _____
hypothalamus, pituitary
phases of menstrual cycle
menstrual, follicular, luneal
steroids in BC tell brain that
no GnRH is needed
because brain thinks no GnRH is needed,
anterior pituitary does not release FSH or LH
if anterior pituitary does not release FSH or LH,
no ovulation
most women have _____ periods
350-400
tamoxifen is an anti-____
estrogen
RU-486 is an anti-____
progesterone
finasteride inhibits
5alpha
Prepare uterus and cervix for childbirth
prostaglandins
steroids are made out of ____
cholesterol
aromatase converts ___ to _____
testosterone, estradiol
____ converts testosterone to estradiol
aromatase
3 steroids secreted by ovaries
estrogens, progestins, androgens
testosterone secreted by (3 places)
adrenal cortex, Leydig cells in testes and thecal cells in ovary
testosterone secreted by ___ in testes
Leydig cells
testosterone secreted by ___ in ovary
thecal cells
In women, main source of estradiol is ______
ovarian follicles
gonadal steroids
androgens, estrogens
effects of gonadal steroids
widespread
3 types of adrenal steroids
mineralocorticoids,glucocorticoids, some sex steroids
agonists
mimic hormones
antagonists
block hormones
releasing hormones made in ____
hypothalamus
releasing hormines target ____
anterior pituitary
gonadotropins
LH, FSH
GnRH is a...
...releasing hormone
GnRH causes release of...
...gonadotropins
LH and FSH produced in ___
anterior pituitary
2 names for LH/FSH
pituitary hormones, gonadotropins
LH and FSH are
protein steroids
FSH promotes
gamete maturation
LH promotes
secretion of androgens
LH regulates
menstrual cycle
2 things involving neg feedback
estrogen/gonadotropins, testosterone/sperm production
hormones for menstrual
estrogen, progesterone low; LH, FSH high
hormones for follicular
high testosterone
hormones for ovulation
gonadotropin, estradiol, testosterone high
luteal hormones
progesterone high
menstrual cycle phases
menstrual, follicular, ovulation, luteal
when is corpus luteum present?
luteal
what does corpus luteum sectrer?
progesterone, estrogen
enzyme inhibitors
block production of hormones
types of enzyme inhibitors
aromatase inhibitors, tamoxifen
Prevent synthesis of estrogen from androgens
aromatase inhibitors
breast cancer treatment
tamoxifen
decreases conversion of testosterone to DHT by inhibiting 5alpha
finasteride
treats prostate enlargement
finasteride