Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

126 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Long Term Causes of World War I
1. Nationalism
2. Imperialism
3. Militarism (Arms Race)
4. System of Alliances
-deep devotion to one's nation...patriotism
-Nationalism served as a divisive force between bigger nations and between bigger and smaller nations: spurred major European nations to overpower smaller nations and each other; caused rivalry and competition between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Britain, Russia, Italy, and France
-served as unifying force within smaller nations/countires: awakend movements for independence among minor nationalities, such as the Serbs, Bulgarians, and Romanians, in the Balkans (southeast Europe, Europe's "powder keg")
-desired for colonies
-Imperialism thrust powerful European nations into fierce competition to gain colonies, new markets, and new sources of raw materials in Africa and Asia, pushing them to the brink of war- creating a deepening sense of rivalry and mistrust with other powerful nations. Germany and France almost fought over Morocco in 1905 and 1911 (France and Belgium had almost gone to war over the Congo, in 1882)
-Imperialism also created deep resentment on the part of the colonized countries towards their Imperial masters.
-glorification of war, preparation for war
-The focus on militarism cause leaders to prepare huge armed forces for conflict (nations felt that to be truly grea they needed a powerful military), and to stockpile weapons, leading to a very competitive arms race that created more rivalry among the Great Powers... major powers tried to out-do each other, out-build each other, epecially Britain and Germany. They built huge rival navies and built huge ships called Dreadnaughts
-The importance of quick mobilization was stress: detailed plans for mobilization were drawn up (such as Germany's Schlieffen Plan)- as a reult nations were more inclined to declare war and when war started it was likely to be more serious
Alliance System
-military alliances among the Great Powers...agreements to protect each other, fight together in the event of an attack on one of them
-This divided Europe into 2 rival groups of nations: a dispute between 2 rivals could draw the entire continent into war
Triple Alliance
-Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy...known as the Central Powers... this was an anti-French alliance: Germany wanted allies to protect from a French attack. They feared that France wouldwant revenge for the loss to Prussia/Germany in the 1870 Franco-Prussian war, followed by the declaration of the new German Empire under Kaiser William I of Prussian, in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles
Triple Entente
-Britain, France, Russia... known as the Allies: brought together by the mistakes made by Kaiser William (Wilhelm) II, who fired the trusted, shrewd Chancellor, Bismarck, who had advised Kaiser William II
Asassination At Sarajevo
- June 28, 1914
-Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were killed by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian extreme nationalist.
-Austria used the murders as an excuse to punish Serbia. Austria sent an ultimatum to Serbia on July 23. It made such extreme demands that Serbia had little choice but to reject some of them in order to preserve its sovereignty. However, Austria-Hungary ignored the attempts for negotiation and declared war on Serbia
Kaiser Wilhelm II
-Ruler of Germany, proud, stubborn, dismissed Bismarck
Wihelm II's responsibility for causing WWI
-Antagonized British by trying to outbuild their navy
-Neglected to sign another Treaty with Russia when the previous Reinsurance Treaty lapsed. Feeling alienated, Russia joined the Triple Entente
-He threatened to seize British and French colonies in Africa
Kaiser Wilhelm II was concerned with Germany's ________ might.
Military. When he wanted to increase Germany's influence, he chose military means.
Kaiser Wilhelm II caused trouble for France in Morocco in
1905 and 1911
How did Kaiser Wilhelm II's changeable nature show in foreign policy?
At times he tried to win Britain and Russia as allies; at other times, he drove them away, resulting in both these nations allying themselves with France
What was Wilhelm II's gross error of diplomacy in 1908?
He told a British newspaper that many Germans were anti-English. Wilhelm's chancellor was forced to apologize for the Kaiser
How did Wilhelm II almost directly cause WWI?
He forced Austria-Hungary to take a hard line against Serbia. However, as the war neared, the Kaiser became frightened and tried to urge peace, However, it was too late.
When was Wilhelm II forced off the throne?
Nov 19, 1918
How many years after did Wilhelm II live after being forced off the throne, and where?
23 years in Holland
How did Wilhelm's character and his statements before the war contribute to France and England seeing him as the supreme leader of Germany during the war?
He constantly strived to improve the military, building a huge navy and wearing military uniforms. Furthermore, he pronounced Germany anti-English.
Russian mobilizing along the German border
Mobilizing amounted to a declaration of war, leading to the German government declaring war on Russia on Aug 1, 1914, then also declaring war on France, on Aug 3, 1914.
Germany invades Belgium to get to France
Britain had close ties with Belgium, its closest neighbor. Outraged over the invasion, Britain declared war on Germany on August 4, 1914
The Allies defeat the Germans in the Battle of the Marne
The Schlieffen Plan was left in ruins. A quick victory in the West was no longer possible, Germany realized it had to fight a long war on two fronts.
Machine guns, tanks, poison gas, and airplanes are used in battles along the Western Front.
It killed people more effectively but did not deliver a fast moving war.
Russian forces attack both Austria and Germany
Russia was crushed by Germany in Tannenburg. Although Russian forces defeated the Austrians twice, they were pushed out of Austria-Hungary, in the Battle of Limanowa. Over 30,000 Russians were killed.
The Allies are unable ship war supplies to Russia's ports.
The Russian army was continually short of food, guns, ammunition, clothers, boots and blankets.
At what battle were the Russians crushed by the Germans?
At what battle were the Russians pushed out of Austria-Hungary?
Battle of Limanowa
Schlieffen Plan
German military plan that called for a quick French defeat, then the army would race back to fight Russia
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, (Italy)
Britain, France, Russia, Japan, and later Italy
Western Front
Germany's border with France
Trench Warfare
Where soldiers fought from trenches to try to protect from enemy fire
Eastern Front
A stretch of battle field along the German/Russian border
What year did WWI start?
What year did WWI end?
What year did the US join WWI?
What year was the Treaty of Versailles signed?
What was the purpose of the Schlieffen Plan?
To avoid war on two fronts
American pilot/dogfighter
Eddie Rickenbacker
German pilot/dogfighter
Baron von Richthofen (Red Baron)
What kind of advancement did war spur?
What was the most well known passenger plane, and a prototype for later models?
Ford Tri-motor
What was the purpose of the Gallipoli campaign?
The allies wanted the Dardanelles, a narrow sea strait that was the gateway to the Ottoman capital, Constantinople. By taking the Dardanelles, they believed they could take Constantinople, defeat the Turks, and establish a supply line to Russia, and maybe even mount an offense into Austria through the Danube River. The Gallipoli Peninsula is on the western side of the strait
Why did the US enter the war?
Germany sunk the Lusitania, a British passenger ship. 1198 people died, including 128 US citizens. The American public was outraged. Furthermore, the British intercepted a telegram from Germany's foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmerman, to the German Ambassador in Mexico, saying that it would help Mexico "reconquer" the land it lost to the US if Mexico would ally itself with Germany. America entered the war on the side of the Allies.
Why did Czar Nicholas II's government collapse?
Civil unrest in Russia combined with war-related shortage of food and fuel caused Nicholas II to be blamed.
What were the terms of the Brest-Litvosk Treaty?
It required the Russian government to surrender lands to Germany that now include Finland, Poland, Ukraine, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
What was the signifigance of the Second Battle of the Marne?
The last battle of WWI
What events signaled the final defeat of the Central Powers?
The Bulgarians and the Ottoman Turks surrendered. In October, a revolution in Austria Hungary brought the empire to an end. In Germany, soldiers mutinied, and the public turned on the kaiser.
How many died on the Lusitania? How many US citizens?
1198 people died. 128 US citizens
Unrestricted submarine warfare
Germany's policy that their submarines would sink any ship in the waters around Britain. Policy began in 1917
total war
Where countries devoted all their resouces to the war effort; it affected everyone and everything.
People could only buy small amounts of items that were needed for the war effort (shoe leather, food, butter)
one-sided information designed to persuaded
agreement to stop fighting
Conditions in the trenches
Deep and muddy, full of disease (trench foot), slimy, full of rubble and dirty water, rats and vermin everywhere, disorganized, lice, and dead bodies
Tunneling under no-man's land and under the enemy works, and blowing it up
Why was Verdun called the "mincer"?
90,000 French soldiers were killed in 6 weeks
What were the famous words of General Petain which inspired the French to fight on?
"They shall not pass"
What were "pals or chums brigades"?
Groups of people who joined who were allowed to serve together.
What was the folly of recruiting from entire communities?
If a brigade was destroyed, entire communities could be decimated.
What was Haig's plan to soften the German defenses?
A 5 day artillery bombardment.
What alerted Germans to the upcoming British attack? How did they prepare for it?
British preparations alerted them. They prepared by digging very deep trenches and waiting out the attack.
When was the Battle of the Somme?
July 1, 1916
How many British casualties were there at the Battle of the Somme?
How many French casualties were there at the Battle of the Somme?
How many German casualties were there at the Battle of the Somme?
Although no advantage was gained at the Battle of the Somme, what was the strategic goal that was acheived?
Verdun was saved
What were the guiding principles of Wison's Fourteen Points?
Self-determination, end to secret treaties, freedon of the seas, free trade, reduced national armies and navies adjustments of colonial claims with fairness towards colonial peoples, specific suggestions for changing borders and creating new nations, and the League of Nations
What were the concerns and aims of France and Britain at the Paris Peace Conference?
National security, revenge, and stripping Germany of war-making power. France was especially determined to punish Germany, and make it pay reparations.
In what ways did the Treaty of Versailles punish Germany?
It lost substantial territory, had severe restrictions placed on its military operations, such as the army had a maximum of 100,000, no submarines, no airforce, and forced to take sole responsibility for the war and pay reparations, lost colonies
What new countries were created out of the Austro-Hungarian Empire?
Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia.
How was the Ottoman Empire divided?
Ottoman Turks were forced to give up nearly all of its former Empire, keeping only what makes the modern-day Turkey. The lands the Ottomans lost were carved into mandates.
Which mandates of the Ottoman Empire were given to Britain?
Palestine, Iraq, and Transjordan
Which mandates of the Ottoman Empire were given to France?
Syria and Lebanon
Which countries gained parts of the Russian Empire?
Poland, Romania, and France (Alsace-Lorraine)
What new countries were created out of the Austro-Hungarian Empire?
Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
How was Wilson's Fourteenth Point incorporated into the treaty?
A League of Nations was created. The 5 Allied Powers, the US, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan, were permanent members of the Executive Council. The General Assembly consisted of 32 Allied and neutral countries. Germany was excluded. Russia's early withdrawal, revolution, and communism made it an outcast in the eyes of the other Allies.
Why did the US reject the treaty?
Many Americans objected to the settement and especially to the League of Nations, because they believed the US's best hope for peace was to stay out of European affairs. Furthermore, they were isolated.
How did the US rejection affect the League of Nations?
The US was considered to be the dominant nation in the world. Lacking its support and later, other world powers, left the League of Nations in no positions to take action.
Why did many countries feel bitter and cheated as a result of the treaty?
Many powers had entered the war to gain territory and had gained less than they wanted, such as Italy and Japan. Germany was left with a legacy of bitterness and hatred
Who were the Big Four?
Woodrow Wilson (US), David Lloyd George (Britain), Georges Clemenceau(France), Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
Allowing people to decide for themselves what government they wished to live under- guiding idea behind Wilson's Fourteen Points.
Large countries that cared for smaller nations until they were ready for independence
What article is the war-guilt clause?
How much was Germany forced to pay?
33 billion over 30 yrs
What was the peace built on quicksand?
The Treaty of Versailles
How many died in the war?
8.5 million
How many were wounded in the war?
21 million
How much did the war cost?
338 billion
How many states is Italy made of?
-in 1832, at 26 yrs, made a group called Young Italy, no one abover 40 could join
-1848, revolts broke out in 8 states.
-Mazzini briefly headed a republican government at Rome. The 1848 rebellions failed, and the former rulers of the Italian states drove Mazzini and other nationalist leaders into exile.
Di Cavour
-prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia
-wealthy, middle-aged aristocrat who worked tirelessly to expand Piedmont-Sardinia's power. With careful diplomacy and well-chosen alliances, he achieved that. Almost coincidentally, he also achieved the unification of Italy/
What was Di Cavour's major goal?
Get control of northern Italy.
What was the greatest roadblock to the unification of Italy?
How did Di Cavour drive Austria out of ________ and _________?`
He enlisted Napoleon III's help. Di Cavour provoked a war with Austria and succeeded in taking Lombardy, although his goals were both Lombardy and Venetia
Who was one of the young nationalists that Di Cavour helped?
Guiseppe Garibaldi
-leader of small army of Italian nationalists.
-Captured Sicily, then crossed to the Italian mainland and marched north.
-In an election, voters gave Garibaldi permission to unite the southern areas he conquered with the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
Why was Garibaldi and his men called the Red Shirts?
They wore bright red shirts into battle
Who became the king of the united Italy?
King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont Sardinia
What was Garibaldi's greatest dream?
The independence of Italy
Why did Garibaldi turn down Lincoln's offer of command in the Civil War?
He believed Lincoln did not condemn slavery strongly enough.
He also wanted command of the entire Union army
How many united states is Germany made of?
Which two states dominated the German confederation?
Austria-Hungary and Prussia
Why was Prussia dominant in the German Confederation?
It had a mainly German population, so nationalism united it, unlike Austria-Hungary, whose ethnic groups tore it apart. It had the most powerful army in Central Europe. Furthermore, it industrialized more quickly than other states.
What happened in the revolutions of 1848?
Berlin rioters forced the frightened and unstable king, Friedrich Wilhelm IV, to call a constitutional convention. In it, the convention drew up a more liberal constitution for the kingdom.
Who succeeded Friedrich Wilhelm to the throne and when?
Wilhelm I, 1861
What did Wilhelm I reform first?
He moved to reform the army and double the Prussian military. However, the liberal parliament refused him the money for reforms.
What did Wilhelm I see the refusal as, and who supported him in his views?
A major challenge to his power. The Junkers supported him.
Who did Wilhelm choose as his prime minister?
A conservative Junker name Otto von Bismarck.
The "politics of reality"- tough power politics with no room for idealism.
What did Bismarck do when he was unable to persuade parliament to grant Wilhelm's wishes?
He announced that the king would rule without the consent of parliament and without a legal budget. This was in direct violation of the constitution.
By working to expand Prussia, what could Bismarck achieve?
He could satisfy his hunger for power and his patriotism.
In 1864, Bismarck formed an alliance between....
Prussia and Austria
Why did Prussia and Austria go to war against Denmark?
Prussia wanted the border provinces of Schleswig and Holstein.
What did a quick victory give Prussia?
Its citizens had increased national pride and gained new respect from other Germans and lent support for Prussia as the head of a unified Germany
How was Schleswig and Holstein split, and what did this settlement cause?
Prussia governed Schleswig and Austria controlled Holstein. This led to tension, which suited his plans perfectly.
How did Bismarck disable Austria?
He stirred up border conflicts over Schleiswig and Holstein. The tensions provoked Austria into declaring war on Prussia in 1866. The conflict was known as the 7 Weeks' War.
Seven Weeks' War
The Prussians had a larger army, superior training and equipment, and humiliated Austria, who lost the region of Venetia to Italy, They also had to accept Prussian annexation of more German territory.
Prussia took control of Northern Germany, and for the first time...
Eastern and Western Prussia were united.
Who dominated the North German Confederation? (1867)
Why did Southern Germany resist domination by Prussia?
It was predominantly Catholic and did not want to be ruled by a Protestant Prussia
Under what circumstances did Bismarck feel sure that they would win the support of the southerners?
Outside threat (war)
How did Bismarck manufacture a war with France?
He published an altered version of a telegram he had received. The telegram gave a false description of a meeting between Wilhelm I and the French ambassador. In the telegram, Wilhelm seemed to insult the French. Reacting to the "insult", the French declared war on Prussia on July 19, 1870
What happened right after war was declared on Prussia?
At once, the Prussian army poured into northern France.
Franco-Prussian War
In 1870, the Prussian army surrounded Sedan. Among the 80,000 prisoners taken; one was Napoleon III. Only Paris held against the Germans. For four months, Parisians withstood a German siege. Hunger forced them to surrender.
What happened after the Franco-Prussian war?
Southern Germany accepted Prussian leadership.
Why were the Balkans called the "powder keg"?
It had more than 400 years of political and ethnic conflict.