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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Consists of the brain and psinal cord. Receives and processes info from sensory and viscera.
Central Nervous system
External environment
Sensory information
internal environment
visceral information
Consists of neurons that provide communication b/w the central nervous system and organs throughout the body
Periperal Nervous System
2 divisions of peripheral nervous system
Afferent and Efferent
Transmit snesory and visceral infor from organs to CNS
transmit inor from the CNS to organs in the periphery
Divisions of Efferent
Somatic nervous system Autonomic nercous system
Consists of the motor neurons, regualte skeletal muscle contractions
somatic nervous system
Consists of nuerons that regualte the function of internal organs and other sturctures that are not under voluntary control
Autonomic nervous system
Branches of Autonomic nervous system
Parasympatheit and sympathetic nervous systems
2 Main classes of cells in the Nervous system
Neurons and Glial cells
Cells capable of producint large, rapid electrical signals
Excitbale cells
Excitable cells
Support cells
Glial Cells
contains nucleus and most organelles
reception of incoming information
transmits electrical impulses called action potentials
where axon originates and action potentials initiated
Axon hillock
releases neurotransmitter
Axon terminal
Site of communication between two neurons or between a neuron and an effector organ
Always open throughout neuron
Contribute to resting membrane potential
Leak channels
Open or close in response to ligand binding
Dendrites & cell body
Ligand-gated channels
Open or close in response to change in membrane potential
Voltage-gated channels
throughout, but more in axon (especially axon hillock)
action potentials
Sodium and potassium channels
Axon terminal
Release of neurotransmitter
Calcium Channels
What are the three structrual classes of neurons
Bi-poplar, Multi-polar, Pseudouni-polar
What are the functional classes of neuron
Efferent and Afferent
Central nervous system
One = Several myelin sheaths
Several axons
Peripheral nervous system
One = One myelin sheath
One axon
Schwann cell
Approximately -70 mV
Resting Membrane Potential
Exists because more negative charges inside cell and more positive charges outside cell
Resting Membrane Potential
communicate over short distances
Graded potential
communicate over long distances
action potential
Initiated by a stimulus (ex: sensory, chemical) that triggers opening or closing of ion channels
Graded potential
level of depolarization necessary to elicit action potential
magnitude decreases as move away from origin
Same stimulus
Repeated close together in time
Temporal Summation
Different stimuli
Overlap in time
Spatial Summation
rapid large depolarization used for communication
Action potential
Period of decreased excitability following an action potential
Refractory periods
Immediately follows action potential
No action potential possible
Absolute refractory period
Follows absolute refractory period
Action potential possible with stronger stimulus
Relative refractory period
Types of synapses
Electrical and Chemical
2 neurons linked together by gap junctions
Electrical Synapse
1-5 msec between arrival of AP and change in post-synaptic Vm
Synaptic Delay
Change in membrane potential in response to neurotransmitter binding to receptor
Postsynaptic Potential
more likely to have action potential
Excititory cells
less likely to have action potential
Membrane stabilization
Inhibitory cells
The summing of input from various synapses at the axon hillock of the postsynaptic neuron to determine whether the neuron will generate action potentials
Neural Integration
Strength of depolarization at the axon hillock is coded by the frequency of action potentials
Frequency Coding
Found in PNS and CNS
Most abundant neurotransmitter in PNS
derived from tyrosine
derived from tryptophan
derived from histidine
greatest affinity for epinephrine
Beta 2
greatest affinity for norepinephrine
Alpha and Beta 1
Short chains of amino acids
consists of the brain and spinal cord. Sensory and viscera organs
consists of neurons that provide communication b/w the CNS and organs throughout body
transmit sensory and visceral info from the organs to CNS
ddassociated w/the skin, muscles and joints
somatic sneses
vison hearing, equilibrium smell and taste
special snses
transmit info from the CNS to rogans in the Periphery
Muscles and glands that perfom ffunctgions in response to commands from neurons
effector organs
Somatic nervous system
moter neurons regulate skeletal muscle contracitons
consists of nurons that regulate the function of internal organs and other stucrtures that are not under volunatry control
autonomic nervous system
cells capable ofproducing large rapid electrical signals
excitable cells
contains the cell nucleus and most of the cell's organelles
cell body
recieve input from other neurons at specialized juncitons called synapses...receveiving
comes off the cell bodya. job is to send info
Rapid large changes in membrane potential during which the inside of the cell becomes positively charged relatie to outside
Action potentials
site where the axon orginates from the cell boday is specialized inmost neurons for the initiation of action potentials
axon hilllock
Release of neurotransmitter upon arrival of an action potential
axon terminal
Found i nplasma membrane thorughout a neruon, always open and are responsible for th eresting membrane potential
leak channels
open or close in resonse to the binding of a chemical messenger to a specific receptore in the plasma membrane. located in the dendrites and cell body
ligand=gated channels
open or close in response to changes in memrbane potential
voltage=gated channels
Second class of cell found in the nervous system
account for 90 percent of all cell sin nervous systems
provide sturctural intergrity to the nervous system
necessary for neruons to carry out their function
glial cells
from myeling around axons in the CNS
1 of them sends out projections proficind the myelin segments for many acons
from meylin around axons in the PNS, 1 cell provides meylin fro only 1 axon
Schwann cells
gaps in the meylin
nodes of ranvier
At rest the inside of the cell is what?
neg. charged
poential diff across its memrbane such that the inside of teh cell is neg relative to the outside, -70
resting membrane potential
RMP depends on 2 things
concentraion gradients of ions
presence of ion chnnels in plasma membrane
change to a more neg. valuse
change to a less eng. or to a pos potentials
when the membrane potential returns ot the resting membrane potential following a dpeolarization
small changes in the the membrane potential that occur when ion channels open or close in response to a stimulus action on the cell
graded potentials
Potassium channels to open, potassium ions would move out
graded potentials gernerate action potentials if they depolarize a neuron to a certain level of membrane potentials
graded potentials that are depolarizations
graded potetnaisl that are hyperpolarizations
spread of volatage by passive charge movement
electrotonic conduction
stimuli are applied in shcu rapid succession that the graded potential form1 stimulu does not dissipate b4 the next graded potential occurs
temporal summation
effects of stimuli form different sources occurrin close together ionn time sum
spatial summation
membrane potential is even more negative than at rest
Whether a membrane is depolarized to thrshold or above the amplitude of the resulting action potential is the same, if the membrane is not depolarized to threshold, no action potential occurs
all or none principle
reduced excitability
refreactory period
spans all of the depolarization phase plus most of the repoalrization phase of an action potential
absolut erefractory period
immediately after the absolute refracotry period
relative refractory period
operate by allowing electrical signals to be transmitted from 1 neruon to another through gap junction
electrical synapses
operate through the release of neurotransmitters that activate signal transduction mechanisms
chemica synapses
synapse b/w a neuron and an effector cell
neuroeffetor junction
numerous small membrane=bound comparments which store neurotransmitter molecules
synaptic vesicles
due to the time required for calcium to trigger the exocytosis of neurotransmitter
synaptic delay
change in the memrbane
postd through G protein-linked receptorssynaptic potential
Slow responses are mediated through G protein-linked receptors
metabotropic receptors
one that brings the memrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron closer to eht threshold for generating an action potential
excitatory synapse
excitatory synapses depolarize the postsynaptic neuronal thrshold by hyperpolari
excitatory postsynaptic potential
either takes the memrbane potential of the postsynaptic neuron away from the action potential threshold by hyperpolarizin the neuron
inhibitory synapse
Neurotransmitter causes potassium channels to open, potassium will move out of the cell
Inhibitory postsynapitc potential
2 or more postsynaptic otentials are generated in rapid succession at the same synapse
temporalo summation
occurs as postsynapitc potentials orginiating at diff synapses spread to the axon hillock, overlapping along the way
spatial summation
the most diverse of the glial cells serving many function in the CNS
1. development of neural conncections
2. reg development and maintenance of synapses
Three connective tissue membranes that separate the soft tissue of the CNS from the surrounding bonde