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56 Cards in this Set

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Sheriff
The elected chief officer of a county law enforcement agency. The sheriff is usually responsible for law enforcement in unincorperated areas and for the operation of the county jail.
Police Managment
The administrative activities of controlling, directing, and coordinating police personnel, resources, and activities in the service of crime pervention, the apprehension of criminals, the recovery of stolen property, and the performace of a variety of regularory and helping services.
Watchman Style
A style of policing marked by a concern for order maintenance. It is a characteristic of lower-class communities where informal police intervention into the lives of residents is employed in the service of keeping the peace.
Legalistic Style
A style of policing marked by a strict concern with enforcing the precise letter of the law. It's departments may take a hands-off approach to disruptive or problematic behavior that does not violate the criminal law.
Service Style
A style of policing marked by a concern with helping rather than strict enforcement. It's police agencies are more likely to take advantage of community resources, such as drug-treatment programs, thatn are other types of agencies.
Police-Community Relations (PCR)
An area of police activity that recognizes the need for the community and the police to work together effectively and that is based on the notion that the police derive thier legitimacy from the community they serve. Explore in 1960s-1970s.
Team Policing
The reorganization of conventional patrol stategies into 'an intergrated and versatile police team assigned to a fixed district'.
Stategic policing
A type of policing that retains the traditional police goal of professional crime fighting but enlarges the enforcement target to include nontraditional kinds of criminals, such as serial offenders, gangs, and criminal associations, drug-distribution networks, and sophisticated white-collar and computer criminals. It generally makes use of innovative enforcement techniques, including intelligence operations, undercover stings, electronic survelliance, and sophisticated forensic methods.
Problem solving policing
A type of policing that assumes that many crimes are caused by exisiting social conditions within the community and that crimes can be controlled by undercovering and effectively addressing underlying social problems. It makes use of community resources, such as sounseling centers, welfare programs, and job-training facilites. It also attempts to involve citzens in crime prevention trhough education, negotiation and conflict management.
Community Policing
A collaborative effort between the police and community that identifies problems of crime and disorder and involves all elements of crime and disorder and involves all elements of the community in the search for solutions to these problems.
Police Subculture
A particular set of values, beliefs, and acceptable forms of behavior characteristic of American police with which the police profession strives to imbue new recruits. It commences with recruit training and continues thereafter.
Learning Organiztion
An organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.
Law Enfocement Assitance Administration (LEAA)
A now-defunct federal agency established under Title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 to funnel federal funding to state and local law enforcement agencies.
Scientific police managment
The application of social science techniques to the study of police administration for the purpose of increasing effectiveness, reducing the frequency of citizen complaints, and enhancing the efficent use of available resources.
Exemplary Projects Program
An initative, sponsored by the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, designed to recognize outstanding innovative efforts to combat crime and to provide assistance to crime victims.
Kansas City
The first large-scale scientific study of law enforcement practices. Sponsored by the Police Foundation it focused on the practice of preventive patrol.
Directed Patrol
A police-managment strategy designed to increase the productivity of patrol officers through the scientific analysis and evaluation of patrol techniques.
Police discretion
The opportunity of law enforement officers to exercise choice in their daily activities.
Bill of Rights
The popular name given to the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which are considered espically important in the processing of criminal defendants.
Landmark Case
A precedent-setting court decision that produces substantial changes in both the understanding of the requiremens of due process and in the practical day-to-day operations of the justice system.
Illgally seized evidence
Evidence seized without regard to the priciples of due process as described by the Bill of Rights. Most is the result of police searches conducted without a proper warrant or of improperly conducted interrogations.
Exclusionary rule
the understanding based on Supreme Court precedent that incriminating information must be seized according to constitutional specifications of due process or it will not be allowed as evidence in a criminal trial.
Fruit of the poisoned tree doctrine
A legal principle that excludes from introduction a trial any evidence later developed as a result of an illgal search or seizure.
Good-Faith exception
An exception to the exclusionary rule. Law enforcement officers who conduct a search or who seize evidence on the basis of good faith and who later discover that a mistake was made may still use the seized evidence in court.
Probable Cause
A set of facts and circumstances that would induce a reasonably intelligent and prudent person to believe that a particular other person has committed a specific crime. Also, reasonable grounds to make or believe an accusation. It refers to the necessary level of belief that would allow for police siezures of individuals and full searches of dwellings, vehicles, and possessions. Upon a demonstration magistrates will issue warrant authorizeing law enforcement officers to effect arrests and conduct searches.
Plain View
A legal term describing the ready visiablity of objects taht might be seized as eidence during a search by plice in the absence of a search warrant specifying the seizure of those objects. To lawfully seize evidence in this officers must havea legal right to be in the viewing area and must have cause to believe that the evidence is somehow associated with criminal activity.
Emergency Search
A search conducted by the police without a warrant, which is justified on the basis of some immediate and overriding need, such as public safety, the likey escape of a dangerous suspect, or the removal or destruction of evidence.
Arrest
The act of taing an adult of juvenile into physical custody by authority of law for the purpose of charging the person with a criminal offense, a delinquent act, or a status offense, terminating with the recording of a specific offense. Technically it occures whenever a law enforcement officer curtails a person's freedom to leave.
Search Incient to an arrest
A warrantless search of an arrested individual conducted to ensure the saftey of the arresting officer. Because individuals placed under arrest may be in possession of weapons, courts have recognized the need for arresting officers to protect themseleves by conduction an immediate search of arrestees without obtaining a warrant.
Reasonable Suspicion
The level of suspicion that would justify an officer in making further inquiry or in conduction further investigation. It may permit stopping a person for questioning or for a simple pat-down search. Also, a belief, based on a consideration of the facts at ahnd and on reasonable inferences drawn from those facts, that would induce an ordinarily prudent and cautious person under the same circumstances to conclude that crminal activity is taking place or that criminal activity has recently occured. It is a general belief that a crimes is in progress or has occured.
Fleeting targets exception
An exception to the exclustionary rule that permits law enforcement officers to search a motor vehicle based on probable cause but without a warrant. It is predicted on the fact that vehicles can quicky leave the jurisdiction of a law enforcement agency.
Compelling Interest
A legal concept that provides a basis for suspicionless searches when public saftey is at issue
Suspicionless search
A search conducted by law enforcement personnel without a warrant and without suspicion. It is permissible only if based on an overriding concern for public saftey.
Interrogation
The information-gathering activity of police officers that involves the direct questioning of suspects.
Inherent coercion
The tatics used by police interviewers that fall short of physical abuse but that nontheless pressure suspects to divulge information.
Psychological Manipulation
Manipulative actions by police interviewers designed to pressure suspects to divulge info that are based on subtle forms of intinidation and control.
Miranda warnings
The advisement of rights due criminal suspects by the police before questioning begins.
Miranda triggers
The dual principles of custody and interrogation both of which are necessary before and advisement of rights is required.
Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA)
A law passed by congress in 1986 establishing the due process requirements that law enforcement officers must meet in order to legally intercept wire communications.
Sneak and Peek search
A search that occurs in the suspects absence and without his or her prior knowledge.
Electronic evidence
Info and data of investigative value that are stored in or transmitted by an electronic device.
Latent Evidence
Evidence of relevance to a criminal investigation that is not readily seen by the unaided eye.
Police working personality
All aspects of the traditional values and patterns of behavior evidenced by police officers who have been effectively socialized into the police subculture.
Police corruption
The abuse of police authority for personal or organiztional gain
Knapp Commission
A committee that investigated police corruption in NYC in earlys 70s.
Internal affairs.
The branch of a police organization tasked with investigation charges of wrongdoing involving memebers of the department.
Biological Weapon
A biological agent used to threaten human life.
Racial Profiling
Any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than behavior or information that leads police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or have been engaged in criminal activity.
Police use of force
The use of physical restraint by a police officer when dealing with a member of the public.
Problem police officer
A law enforcement officer who exhibits problem behavior, as indicated by high rates of citizen complaints and use-of-force incidents and by other evidence.
Deadly Force
Force likely to cause dath or great bodily harm, Also the intentional use of a firearm or other instrument resulting in a high probability of death.
Less-letahl weapon
a weapon that is designed to disable, capture, or immobilize- but not kill- a suspect. Occastional deaths do result from the use of such weapons.
Police porfessionalism
The increasing fromalization of police work and the accompanying rise in public acceptance of the police.
Police ethics
The special responsbility to adhere to moral duty and obligations that is inherent in police work.
Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) program
The official program of a state or legislative jurisdiction through which standards for the training of law enforcement officers are set. All states set such standards, although not all use the term POST.
Private protective services
Independent or proprietary commerical organiztions that provide protective services to employers on a contractual basis