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80 Cards in this Set

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What is starch broken down to in the SI and by what?
Glc by amylase
What is glycogen broken down to in the SI and by what?
Glc by amylase
What is lactose broken down to in the SI and by what?
Glc and Galactose by lactase
What is sucrose broken down to in the SI and by what?
Glc and Fructose by sucrase
What is the only glucose transporter that's responsive to insulin, and where is it located in the body? (3)
GLUT-4
- Cardiac muscle
- Skeletal muscle
- Adipose tissue
Two locations glycogen is stored
- Liver
- Muscle
2 hormones that stimulate glycogenolysis
- Epinephrine
- Glucagon
What is released from glycogenolysis in the hepatocyte?
Glc
What is released from glycogenolysis in the myocyte?
- Lactate
- Pyruvate

Myocytes can't export Glc
What is the main source of glucose in ruminants?
Gluconeogenesis from propionate
Where is insulin produced?
B-cells in pancreatic islets
What is release of insulin regulated by? (2)
- Blood [Glc]
- GI hormones
What are five things that glucose promotes?
- Glycogen synthesis
- Lipid synthesis
- Protein synthesis
- Glc transport across membranes of muscle and fat cells
- Glc utilization
What is glucagon produced by?
alpha cells in the pancreatic islets
What is glucagon release stimulated by?
Hypoglycemia
2 things that glucagon stimulates
- Glycogenolysis
- Gluconeogenesis
Glucagon is a secretogogue to what hormone?
Insulin
What is somatostatin produced by?
delta cells in the pancreas islets
One hormone that causes a decrease in blood Glc
Insulin
Four hormones that cause an increase in blood Glc
- Glucagon
- Catecholamines
- Somatotropin (growth hormone)
- Cortisol
3 things that somatostatin inhibits
- Growth hormone
- Glucagon
- Insulin
In what type of animal is fasting unnecessary to test for glucose?
Ruminants
How does the site of collection of blood for a Glc test affect the test?
Arterial and capillary blood Glc is higher than venous Glc
3 tubes that require separation of serum to run a blood Glc test on
- Clot tube (red)
- Lithium Heparin (green)
- Sodium fluoride (grey)
How long does serum glucose stay stable in the fridge?
48 hours
How are glucose levels in serum related to glucose levels in plasma?
Equivalent as long as they're separated at the same time
4 analytical methods of Glc levels
- Photometric
- Colorimetric
- Kinetic assays
- Portable glucose meters
What three conditions related to the blood affect a photometric assay?
- Lipemia
- Hemolysis
- Icterus
What causes a false decrease in a kinetic assay for Glc analysis?
Bromide
What part of the kidney resorbs Glc?
Proximal renal tubule
4 symptoms of hyperglycemia
- PU/PD
- Increased appetite with weight loss
- Depression
- Vomiting
4 causes of physiologic hyperglycemia
- Post-prandial
- Excitement
- Steroids
- Diestrus
How long in monogastrics does it take for Glc levels to return to normal after eating?
4 - 12 hours
5 types of Diabetes Mellitus
- Type I Diabetes mellitus
- Type II diabetes mellitus
- Endocrine diabetes mellitus
- Drug-induced diabetes mellitus
- Infectious diabetes mellitus
7 causes of pathologic hyperglycemia
- Type I Diabetes mellitus
- Type II diabetes mellitus
- Endocrine diabetes mellitus
- Drug-induced diabetes mellitus
- Infectious diabetes mellitus
- Hyperammonemia
- Pharmacologic or toxicologic substances
How does ammonia influence body Glc levels?
Stimulates Glucagon release
Pathology of Diabetes Mellitus type I
Immune mediated destruction of beta cells, so no insulin produced
What sex does Diabetes Mellitus Type I occur most often in?
Females
What causes a false decrease in a kinetic assay for Glc analysis?
Bromide
What part of the kidney resorbs Glc?
Proximal renal tubule
4 symptoms of hyperglycemia
- PU/PD
- Increased appetite with weight loss
- Depression
- Vomiting
4 causes of physiologic hyperglycemia
- Post-prandial
- Excitement
- Steroids
- Diestrus
How long in monogastrics does it take for Glc levels to return to normal after eating?
4 - 12 hours
5 types of Diabetes Mellitus
- Type I Diabetes mellitus
- Type II diabetes mellitus
- Endocrine diabetes mellitus
- Drug-induced diabetes mellitus
- Infectious diabetes mellitus
7 causes of pathologic hyperglycemia
- Type I Diabetes mellitus
- Type II diabetes mellitus
- Endocrine diabetes mellitus
- Drug-induced diabetes mellitus
- Infectious diabetes mellitus
- Hyperammonemia
- Pharmacologic or toxicologic substances
How does ammonia influence body Glc levels?
Stimulates Glucagon release
Pathology of Diabetes Mellitus type I
Destruction of beta cells, so no insulin produced
What sex does Diabetes Mellitus Type I occur most often in?
Females
Most common form of Diabetes Mellitus in cats
Type II
Pathogenesis of Diabetes Mellitus Type II
Insulin resistance
Causative agent of Diabetes Mellitus Type II in cats
Amylin accumulation damages beta cells
8 causes of a endocrine Diabetes Mellitus
- Acromegaly
- Glucagonoma
- Hyperadrenocorticism
- Hyperpituitarism
- Hyperthyroidism
- Hypothyroidism
- Pheochromocytoma
- Bovine milk fever
2 causes of drug-induced Diabetes Mellitus
- Steroids
- Megestrol acetate
How does Megestrol Acetate cause Diabetes Mellitus?
- Steroid action stimulates Glc-neo
- Progestin action stimulates GH
How does BVDV cause Diabetes Mellitus?
Damages Beta cells
How does sepsis cause Diabetes Mellitus?
Insulin resistance due to endotoxins
How does hyperamonemia cause Diabetes Mellitus?
Ammonia stimulates glucagon
5 symptoms of Hypoglycemia
- Seizures
- Depression
- Tremors
- Collapse
- Disorientation
2 causes of a spurius hypoglycemia test result
- In vitro glycolysis
- Bromide interference
7 pathologic causes of a hypoglycemia
- Increased insulin secretion
- Decreased insulin antagonism
- Decreased gluconeogenesis
- Decreased glycogenolysis
- Increased glucose utilization
- Pharmacologic or toxicologic
- Idiopathic
Two causes of increased insulin secretion
- Insulinoma
- Xylitol toxicosis
What species do insulinomas occur most in? (2)
- Ferrets
- Dogs
Two causes of decreased insulin antagonism
- Hypoadrenocorticism
- Hypopituarism
4 causes of decreased gluconeogenesis
- Hepatic insufficiency
- Hypoadrenocorticism
- Neonatal/juvenile hypoglycemia
- Starvation
Cause of decreased glycogenolysis
Glycogen storage diseases
Two causes of an increased glucose utilization
- Exertional hypoglycemia
- Lactational hypoglycemia (bovine ketosis) in dairy cattle
3 pharmacologic/toxicologic causes of hypoglycemia
- Insulin OD
- Sulfonylurea compounds
- Ethanol (blocks Glc-neo)
3 ancillary tests for Glucose levels
- Glycated proteins
- Glucose tolerance test
- Insulin measurement (Immunoreactive Insulin Measurement)
What are glycated proteins?
Proteins with Glc or Fru irreversibly attached
- Gives a measurement of the average blood glucose over a period of time
Relationship of glycated protein concentration with glucose levels
Increased by persistent hyperglycemia
Which species has a relatively high normal blood glucose level?
Birds (200 - 400 mg/dl)
Which species has a relatively low normal blood glucose level?
Bovine (75 - 90 mg/dl)
3 species that have a normal blood glucose level of about 65 - 130 mg/dl?
- Dog
- Cat
- Horse
Glucose renal threshold in dogs
180 mg/dl
Glucose renal threshold in cats
280 mg/dl
Glucose renal threshold in birds
600 mg/dl
Indication for a glycated protein test
Used to prove a persistent hyperglycemic state
Indication for a glucose tolerance test
Determines whether an animal tolerates additional glucose
- If it can't, then it probably has diabetes and will show a diabetic curve with an excessive increased in blood glucose and slow return to normal levels
Indication for an insulin measurement
Used to determine if inappropriate levels of insulin are being secreted
Indication for a Glucose and Insulin Test
Performed if suspecting insulin resistance in a horse with a normal resting serum-insulin concentration