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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
name five classes of antibiotics
1.aminoglycosides
2.cephalosporins
3.quinolones/fluroquinolones
4.vancomycin
5.macrolides
how antibiotics work
1.protein synthesis
2.nucleic acid
3.cell wall
4.cell membrane
5.metabolic reactions
problems with antibiotics
1.resistance
2.superinfection
3.anaphylaxis
4.toxicity
5.ab’s in food supply
sulfonamides
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: sulfanilamide sulfamethoxazole
src: synthetic
spc: broad
imp: folic acid metabolism
eff: kidney and liver damage, allergic reactions
isoniazid
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: none
src: synthetic
spc: tubercle bacilli
imp: cell wall synthesis
eff: liver damage
metronidazole
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: none
src: synthetic
spc: trichomonas vaginalis
imp: cell metabolism
eff: tumors in mice
chloroquine
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: primaquine
src: synthetic
spc: plasmodium species
imp: cell metabolism
eff: eye damage
fluoroquinolones
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: ciprofloxacin enoxacin
src: synthetic
spc: broad
imp: dna synthesis
eff: few reported
penicillins
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: penicillin-G ampicillin amoxicillin nafcillin oxacillin
src: penicillium notatum penicillium chrysogenum synth semisynth
spc: broad (esp gram+)
imp: cell wall synthesis
eff: allergic reactions, selection of penicillinase producing strains
cephalosporins
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: cephalothin cephalexin
src: cephalosporium semisynthetic
spc: broad (esp gram+)
imp: cell wall synthesis
eff: occasional allergic reactions
aminoglycosides
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: gentamicin neomycin amikacin streptomycin
src: micromonospora species streptomyces species
spc: broad (esp gram-)
imp: protein synthesis
eff: hearing defects, kidney damage
chloramphenicol
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: none
src: streptomyces venezuelae
spc: broad (esp typhoid bacilli)
imp: protein synthesis
eff: aplastic anemia, gray syndrome
tetracyclines
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: chlortetracycline oxytetracycline doxycycline minocycline
src: streptomyces species semisynthetic
spc: broad (rickettsiae, chlamydiae, gram-)
imp: protein synthesis
eff: destruction of natural flora, discoloration of teeth, stunted bones
macrolides
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: erythromycin clarithromycin azithromycin
src: streptomyces erythraeus semisynthetic
spc: broad (mycoplasma gram+)
imp: protein synthesis
eff: gastrointestinal distress
vancomycin
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: none
src: streptomyces orientalis
spc: gram+ (esp staphylococci)
imp: cell wall synthesis
eff: ear, kidney damage
rifampin
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: rifapentine
src: streptomyces mediterranei semisynthetic
spc: tubercle bacilli (gram-)
imp: rna synthesis
eff: liver damage
clindamycin
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: lincomycin
src: streptomyces lincolnesis
spc: gram+
imp: protein synthesis
eff: pseudomembranous colitis
bacitracin
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: none
src: bacillus subtilis
spc: gram+ (esp staphylococci)
imp: cell wall synthesis
eff: kidney damage
polymyxin
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: none
src: bacillus polymyxa
spc: gram- (esp wounds)
imp: cell membrane function
eff: kidney damage
spectinomycin
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: none
src: streptomyces spectabilis
spc: gonococci
imp: protein synthesis
eff: few reported
moxalactam (examples)
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: imipenem
src: chromobacter violaceum
spc: broad
imp: protein synthesis(?)
eff: few reported
nystatin (examples)
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: none
src: streptomyces noursei
spc: fungi (esp candida albicans)
imp: cell membrane function
eff: few reported
griseofulvin (examples)
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: none
src: penicillium janczewski
spc: fungi (esp superficial infections)
imp: nucleic acid synthesis
eff: occasional allergic reactions
amphotericin B (examples)
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: none
src: streptomyces nodosus
spc: fungi (esp systemic infections)
imp: cell membrane function
eff: fever, gastrointestinal destress
imidazoles (examples)
examples
source
spectrum
impedes
effect
exp: clotrimazole ketoconazole
src: synthetic
spc: fungi (esp superficial infections)
imp: inhibit sterol synthesis
eff: few reported