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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What was the 1876 constitution was predicated on?
the theory that governmental excesses could be minimized by carefully defining what governments could and could not do.
What were regarded by the 1875 Texas Constitutional Convention to be the strengths of the constitution?
1.fragmented authority,
2.detailed limitations on the power of governmental institutions,
3.decentralization
What were the end results of the perceived strengths of the Texas Constitution?
limits the ability of state and local governments to adapt effectively to economic and demographic changes.
How did the Civil War and the Radical Reconstruction periods effect Texans' perceptions about government?
an enduring legacy of a:
1. suspicion of government,
2.limited government, and
3.fragmented governmental institutions.
Texas declared its independence from Mexico in :
1836.
Scholars believe that constitutions should be:
brief, with direct grants of authority to specific institutions.
The U.S. Constitution has 7,000 words; the Texas Constitution has:
93,000 (over 80,000 words)
T or F
The Texas Constitution reflects
a trust in government
False. It reflects a distrust in gov't.
A leglislature that has a single legislative body is called:
unicameral
The move toward Texas's admission to the U.S. in 1845 was accelerated by the election of:
James K. Polk as president.
The terms of Texas's admission into the Union also provided that Texas could divide itself into as many as __________ states.
5 or five
The Constitution of 1845 did all of the following except:
1. prevented foreclosure on personal homesteads
2. established separate property rights for women
3. allowed state chartered banks
4. established a state
allowed state chartered banks
T or F
The Constitution of 1845 allowed African Americans the right to vote.
FALSE
T or F
The Radical Reconstructionists were a group of Democrats who took control of the U.S. Congress in 1866 and imposed military governments upon former Confederate states.
FALSE
T or F
The Grange was an organization formed to improve the lot of farmers.
TRUE
T or F
The Texas Constitution of 1876 was essentially anti-government, a reaction to the corruption of the Davis administration and President Grant's two administrations.
TRUE
T or F
The Texas Constitution of 1876 levied poll taxes.
TRUE
T or F
There were 390 amendments to the Texas Constitution between 1876 and 1999.
TRUE
T or F
An initiative is a procedure by which voters propose a constitutional amendment or other law through petitions, subject to adoption by a popular vote.
TRUE
T or F
Texans currently have an initiative process.
FALSE
T or F
Only about 20 percent of Texans will participate in an election when constitutional amendments are the only issues on the ballot.
TRUE
T or F
In the Edgewood school finance case, Texas courts invalidated the system of funding public education, calming that it was unconstitutional and ordered the legislature to provide more equity in tax resources among the school districts.
TRUE
Texas has had __________ constitutions.
7 or seven
Texas's first constitution was adopted in 1827, when the state was still part of __________.
Mexico
When twenty-five amendments appeared on the same ballot in 1987, the __________ ___ __________ __________ announced that they would neither support nor oppose any amendment that year—they urged voters to complain about the length of the ballot.
League of Women Voters
A national government created by the states that relies on the states for its authority would be called a
Confederacy
The current constitution in Texas was written in __________ although it was amended frequently thereafter.
1876
Many experts believe that the Texas Constitution excessively __________ governmental authority and responsibility.
limits; restricts
The poll tax in Texas was not outlawed until __________.
1966
The term of the governor was lengthened in Texas in the year __________ to four years
1869
Proposed constitutional amendments can be submitted only by the __________, and require a two-thirds vote in both the House and the Senate, and a majority vote, once on the state-wide ballot.
legislature
When was the last TExas Constitution REALLY written?
1875 NOT< NOT 1876
What are the 3 recurring themes of the Texas Constitutions:
1. ongoing conflict over the distribution of power among groups and regions;
2. restrictions on the legislature;
3. relationship of state gov't and economic activity within the state.
When was the 2nd Const. was adopted?
1836
When was the 3rd Const. adopted?
1845
When was the 4th Const. adopted?
1861 when Texas joined the Confederacy
When was the 5th Const. adopted?
1866 When Texas rejoined the Union
When was the 6th Const. adopted?
1869 to satisfay the Radical Reconstructionists' opposition to the 1866 Const.
When was the 7th and last Texsas Const. adopted?
1875 after termination of Reconstruction policies.
What is a legal structure of a political suystem esta. gov't. bodies and defining their powers?
Constitution
What did the Texas Const. 1827 do?
It recognized Texas as a Mexican state with Coahuila
What did the Const. of 1836 do?
Delcared indpendence from Mexico, Texas funcioned as an inpdependent republic for nine (9) years.
What did the REconstruction Const. do?
In 1869, it centralized government and weakened local governments. It did not reflect the sentiments of most Texans.
What is the name for law enacted by a legislative body?
Statutory law
Under what const. did Texas have a unicameral legislature?
1827
Under what const. was Catholicism enacted as the state religion?
1827
Under what const. were Anglo Texans exempt from the military,taxes, and custom duties?
1827
What is the name for a const. agreement whereby authority rests with a national government; and, the subgovernments only have those powers given to them by the national government.
unitary system
Which state influenced the Texas Const. of 1845?
Louisiana
Which state influenced the Texas Const. of 1845?
Louisiana
T or F
Many scholars and politicians believe that the Texas constitution is a textbook example of what a constitution should be.
False NOT BE!
How often does the Texas legislature meet?
every other year
How long is the state budget period in Texas?
2 years
List the 3 recurring issues that emerge from the Texas constitutional legacy:
1. ongoing conflict over the distribution of power within the state among groups & religion
2. scope of govbernment power & authority, reflected by the procedural & substantive restrictions on the legislature
3.relationship of state government to economic activity within the state
When was the first Texas constitution adopted?
1827, when state was still part of Mexico
When was second Texas constitution adopted?
1836, when Texas declared ints independence from Mexico and became a republic
When was the third Texas constitution adopted?
1845, when Texas joinged the Union
when was the fourth constitution written?
1861 when Texas joined the Confederacy
When was the fifth Texas constitution adopted?
1866, when Texas joined the Union, again.
When was the sixth Texas constitution adopted?
1869, to satisfy the Radical Reconstructionists' opposition to the 1866 constitution
When was the seventh Texas Constitution adopted?
1876, after termination of Reconstruction policies.
List 3 recurring issues that have emerged from Texas's contitutional legacy:
1.ongoing conflict over distribution of power w/in the state among groups & regions;
2.the scope of government powers & authority reflected by the procedural & substantive restricts on the legislature;
3. relationship of state government to economic activity w/in the state - balancing promoting economic activity & regulating it.
Cite the 7 dates(years) in Texas's history for the 7 different Texas Constitution:
1. 1827
2. 1836
3. 1845
4. 1861
5. 1866
6. 1869
7. 1878
What is the basic tenet that of the Texas Constitution that overshadows legislature?
It requires a budge that is based on "pay-as-you-go." State comptroller must certify that each budget can be paid for by anticipated taxes, fees, and other sources.
List the 2 handicaps that make the it more difficult for the Texas legislature meet the budgetary needs adequately and fairly:
1. 2-year budget period because legislature meets in regular session only every other year.
2. constitutional requriements that dedicate significant protions of state revenue to specific purposes.
Cite an example of a required spending formula dectated in the Texas Constitution:
3/4 of the revenue from motor fuel tax is automatically set aside for highways; the remaining 1/4 is automatically set aside for public schools
Cite 3 basic guidelines for good constitutions by Cons. scholars:
1. Constitution should be brief & should include general princples rather than specific legislative provisions;
2. Constitutions should make direct grants of authority to specific institutions to increase responsiveness & accountability of individuals elected or appointed
3. Constitutions should provide for orderly change but should not be written in a restrictive fashon requiring continual modifications to meet contempory needs
How many times has the US Consitution been amended since 1788?
27 times.
What phrase has often been used to describe the US Consitution?
It is regarded as "a living charter or document" in that it does not have to be continually amended to meet contemporary needs.
What is the term for a legal structure of a political system, establishing government bodies and defining their powers?
Constitution
What is the term for a law enacted by a legislative body?
Statutory law
The Texas Constitution is ___________ a set of basic governemtental principles than a compilation of detailed statutory language.
less
Which states are the only states whose constitutions formally acknowledge the supremacy of the US Constitution?
Texas and the southern states
Why does Texas and the southern states' constitutions formally acknowledge the supremacy of the US Constitution?
The provision was required by the Radical Reconstructionists for readmission of the Confederate states to the Union.
T or F
Intially Anglo Texasn appeared to be willing to be incorporated into the mexican political system as long as there was limited intrusion by the Mexican government into their daily affairs.
True
T or F
In 1824 the new Republic of Mexico recognized as asingle state Texas and Cohahuila (neighbor south of the Rio Grande)
True
What was the capital of the Mexican state, Cohuila y Tejas?
Saltillo
What events resulted in the seizure of ppower by Gen. Santa Ana in Mexico?
increased internal conflict among competing Mexican interests
What is the full name of Santa Anna?
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Perez de Lebron
T or F
Stephen F. Austin originally consistently supported the position that Texas was a mexican state.
True
What is the term used to describe the constitutional arrangement whereby authority rests with the national government, subnational governments have only those powers given them by the national government?
Unitary System
What term describes the constitutional arrangement in which power is formally divided between national subnation governments?
federalism
What is the name of the location where Texans hastily met and declared their independence on March 2, 1836, adn wrote the Constitution of the Repoublci which was adopted on March 16, 1836?
Washington-on-the-Brazos
When did the Texas army under Sam Houston defeat Santa Anna's army?
April 21, 1836
Where did Sam Houston and the Texas army defeat Santa Anna?
San Jacinto
List limitations that faced Texas after the war of independence with Mexico in creating a stable government:
1. no viable government in place
2. no money for paying the costs of government
3. no party system
What blocked overtures made by some Texans for annexation to the US?
slavery issue and its relationship to economic & regional influence
What president made annexation of Texas a major issue in the US presidential campaign of 1844?
James K. Polk