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47 Cards in this Set

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matter
anything that takes up space and mass
atom
smallest living unit of matter that has the characteristics of an element. consists of particles
electrons
form cloud around nucleus.
atomic nucleus
oppposite charges allow electrons and protons to get packed together to form a dense core at the bottom of the atom.
atomic number
it's a subscript 2 the left
number of protons same as atomic number
mass number
protons+electrons in nucleus
superscript to the left
neutrons can be figured out by subtracting atomic and mass #s
its an estimate of the total mass of an atom
isotopes
different atomic forms of an element
compound
the mixing of 2 or more elements at a fixed ratio
molecule
2 or more atoms held together by a covalent bond
structural formula
H--H line represents covalent bond.
orbital
space where electron is found 90% of the time
electrons
negative
form cloud around nucleus
covalent bond
2 atoms share a pair of outer electrons (valence electrons).
double covalent bond
2 pairs of valence electrons
nonpolar covalent bond
electrons are shared equally betweeen elements that have atoms with an electronegativity less than 0.5
polar covalent bond
electrons arent shared equally since one atom is more electronegative than the others
ion
charged atom or molecule
what is a postive ion called
cation
what is an anion
a negative ion
ionic bond
opposites attract. cations and ions get together.
hydrogen bonds
usually occurs with possitive hydrogen that is attracted to an elecronegative atom i.e. oxygen
element
pith, essence elemental.
an element cant be broken down further
dissociation
this is when 2 electronegative oxygens from the carboxyl group steal pull shared electrons from a hydrogen
cohesion
hydrogen bonds hold and unify a substance of like molecules
adhesion
1 substance clinging on to another
surface tension
it's a type of measurement as to how difficult it is to break or stretch the surface of a liquid.
when does water freze?
at sea lvl water freezes at 0 degrees celsius.
specific heat
how much heat has to be absorbed or lost for a substance to change its temp.
1cal/g/
what is the term that defines the turning of a liquid into gas
vaporization/evaporation
solvent
dissolving agent of a solution
solute
the substance that is dissolved
hydrophilic
lover of water!
anything that has an affinity with water
hydrogen ion
single proton with a charge of +1
hydroxide ion
a water molecule that loses its proton is now a hydroxide ion (OH-)
dissociation
it's rare and irrervisble
formed by 2 electronegative oxygens of the carboxyl group pulling shared electron from hydrogen.
acid
increases the amount of H+ in a solution
bases
decreases amt of hydrogen ion in solution
pH scale
pH declines as H+ increases.
pH is based on H+ but implies OH- concentration
7=nuetral
5+=basic
heat of vaporization
the amount of heat a liquid has to absorb for 1 gram of it to turn into gas
pH scale
pH declines as H+ increases.
pH is based on H+ but implies OH- concentration
7=nuetral
5+=basic
heat of vaporization
the amount of heat a liquid has to absorb for 1 gram of it to turn into gas
pH scale
pH declines as H+ increases.
pH is based on H+ but implies OH- concentration
7=nuetral
5+=basic
heat of vaporization
the amount of heat a liquid has to absorb for 1 gram of it to turn into gas
protons and nuetrons...where are they?
their in the center of atom inside a nucleus
whta do u call an atom that loses or gains an electron?
ion
nonpolar covalent bond.
Two atoms of the same element have equal electronegativities; they share electrons equally, forming a___
An atom is most stable when ...
it has a full valence shell- this is done by transferring or sharing electrons