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36 Cards in this Set

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WHAT ARE SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?
SYSTOLIC blood pressure is pressure exerted as blood is pumped from the heart
WHAT ARE DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?
DIASTOLIC blood pressure is the pressure present during the resting phase of the heartbeat
WHAT ARE THE PRIMARY DETERMINANTS OF SYSTOLIC AND DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE?
systolic--cardiac output

diastolic--peripheral vascular resistance
WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF HYPERTENSION?
hypertension is an elevation in either the systolic or diastolic blood pressure or both
PREHYPERTENSION IS ?
prehypertension is a range of blood pressure readings that indicates a high probability of developing a heart attack, heart failure, stroke or renal disease
PRIMARY HYPERTENSION IS?
primary hypertension is a controllable but not curable form of hypertension of unknown etiology
PREHYPERTENSION IS ?
prehypertension is a range of blood pressure readings that indicates a high probability of developing a heart attack, heart failure, stroke or renal disease
SECONDARY HYPERTENSION IS?
secondary hypertension occurs following the development of another disorder in in the body (renal disease, head trauma)
WHAT IS THE THERAPEUTIC OUTCOME FOR ANTIHYPERTENSIVE?
the therapeutic outcome for antihypertensive therapy is to lower blood pressure by reducing peripheral resistance
WHAT CLASS OF DRUGS IS USED INITIALLY IN THE TREATMENT OF UNCOMPLICATED HYPERTENSION WHEN LIFESTYLE CHANGES ARE NOT EFFECTIVE?
if lifestyle changes do not sufficiently reduce blood pressure, a diuretic or a beta-blocker are generally the initial treatment of choice
WHAT ARE THE FOUR CLASSES OF DIURETIC AGENTS USED TO TREAT HYPERTENSION?
the four classes of diuretic agents used to treat hypertension are carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, thiazide and thiazide-like agents, loop diuretics, and potassium sparing diuretics. thiazide are most often used
WHAT LABORATORY TEST IS USED AS A GUIDE TO INDICATE WHEN A PATIENT NEEDS TO SWITCH FROM A THIAZIDE-TYPE TO A LOOP DIURETIC?
the creatinine clearance test is used when a patient needs to switch from a thiazide-like to a loop diuretic
WHAT ARE THE MAJOR SIDE EFFECTS TO EXPECT AND REPORT WITH BETA-ADRENERGIC BLOCKING AGENTS?
the major side effects to expect and report with beta-adrenergic agents include bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, bronchospasm, wheezing, hypoglycemia in diabetic patients, and heart failure
WHAT TYPES OF PATIENTS SHOULD AVOID THE USE OF BETA-BLOCKING AGENTS?
beta-blocking agents are not as effective in african-americans patients and should be avoided in patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes mellitus, heart failure with an etiology of systolic dysfunction, and in patients with peripheral vascular disease
WHAT PRECAUTIONS SHOULD BE INSTITUTED WHEN BETA-BLOCKER THERAPY IS TO BE DISCONTINUED?
after long-term treatment with beta-blockers, discontinue gradually over 1-2 weeks and monitro for anginal symptoms
WHAT EFFECTS DOES ANGIOTENSIN II HAVE ON BLOOD VESSELS?
angiotensin II produces vasoconstriction, which results in an increase in blood pressure
WHAT EFFECT DOES AN INCREASEIN ALDOSTERONE SECRETION HAVE ON BLOOD PRESSURE?
aldosterone results in sodium retention, which causes water retention and increased cardiac output, thereby increasing blood pressure
SUMMARIZE THE SIDE EFFECTS TO EXPECT AND TO REPORT WITH THE USE OF ACE INHIBITORS?
side effects are nausea, fatigue, headache, diarrhea, and orthrohypotension. Adverse effects are swelling face, eyes, lips, dyspnea, neutropenia, nephrotoxicity, hyperkalemia, chronic cough, birth defects
WHAT IS THE ACTION ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS?
angiotensin II receptor inhibitors block the angiotensin II from binding to receptor sites in vascular smooth muscle and the adrenal glands. this prevents elevation of pressure and sodium-retaining properties of angiotensin II.
WHAT IS THE ACTION OF EPLERNONE, THE ALDOSTERONE RECEPTOR BLOCKING AGENT?
Eplernone (Inspira), an aldosterone receptor blocking agent, blocks the stimulation of the mineralocorticoid receptors by aldosterone, thereby preventing sodium reabsorption.
WHAT HERBAL PRODUCT AND FRUIT JUICE SLOWS THE ABSORPTION OF EPLERNONE?
grapefruit juice and st. johns wort
WHAT IS THE ACTION OF CALCIUM ION ANTAGONISTS ON THE BLOOD PRESSURE?
calcium ion antagonists inhibit the movement of calcium ions across cell membranes. this causes slower rate of heart contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles of blood vessels, resulting in vasodilation and reduction of the blood pressure.
WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS TO EXPECT WITH ALPHA, -ADRENERGIC BLOCKERS?
side effects to expect with alpha, -adrenergic blockers include drowsiness, headache, dizziness, weakness, tachycardia, fainting
WHY SHOULD CENTRALLY ACTING ALPHA-AGONISTS (CLONIDINE, GUANABENZ, GUANFACINE, METHYLDOPA) BE DISCONTINUED GRADUALLY?
sudden discontinuation of centrally acting alpha-agonists can produce a rebound effect with sudden increase in blood pressure
WHAT IS AN ANTICIPATED SIDE EFFECT SEEN WITH MINOXIDIL? (LONITEN, MINODYL)
the anticipated side effect seen with minoxidil is hair growth on the body
WHAT IS AN ANTICIPATED SIDE EFFECT SEEN WITH MINOXIDIL? (LONITEN, MINODYL)
the anticipated side effect seen with minoxidil is hair growth on the body
TO WHAT DRUG CLASS DOES GUANADREL (HYLOREL) BELONG?
guanadrel is a peripheral-acting adrenergic antagonist
WHAT IS THE ENDING OF GENERIC DRUG NAMES BELONGING TO THE CLASS OF ACE INHIBITORS?
generic drug names of ACE inhibitors end in "-pril" (enalapril, captopril)
WHAT IS THE ENDING OF GENERIC DRUG NAMES BELONING TO THE CLASS OF ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS?
generic drug names of angiotensin II receptor antagonists end in "-sartan" (candesartan, losartan)
WHAT IS THE ENDING OF GENERIC DRUG NAMES BELONGING TOT HE CLASS OF CALCIUM ION ANTAGONISTS?
generic drug names of calcium ion antagonists end in "-pine", with the exceptions of diltiazem and verapamil.
WHAT IS THE ENDING OF GENERIC DRUG NAMES BELONGING TOT HE CLASS OF CALCIUM ION ANTAGONISTS?
generic drug names of calcium ion antagonists end in "-pine", with the exceptions of diltiazem and verapamil.
WHAT IS THE ENDING OF GENERIC DRUG NAMES BELONGING TO THE CLASS OF ALPHA -ADRENERGIC BLOCKING AGENTS?
generic drug names of alpha -adrenergic blocking agents end in "-azosin"
WHAT DO DIURETICS DO?
enhances fluid volume excretion, sodium excretion, and vasodilation of peripheral arterioles
BETA-ADRENERGIC BLOCKERS
block beta receptors to inhibit cardiac response to sympathetic nerve stimulation
ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYMES ACE INHIBITORS
may produce swelling lips and tongue, dyspnea, neutropenia, nephrotoxicity, and or chronic cough
CALCIUM ANTAGONISTS
block flow of calcium ions across cell membranes