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87 Cards in this Set

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Catal Huyuk
-first planned city
-turkey
-discovered by Mellart
-inhumation burial
http://www.blogcurioso.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/09/catal-huyuk.jpg
Stonehenge
-commemorates death
-calender based on lunar cycles
-animistic shrine
-John Aubrey finds holes in ground (speculated burial)
-tribiation
-menhir: standing stone
bluestones: light quality
Woodhenge
-Commemorates life
-For Ceremonies in conjunction with Stonehenge
Avebury
-near stonehenge
-speculated to be religious
-irregular, but evenly spaces around circle
10x the size of stonehenge
http://www.sacredsites.com/europe/england/images/stone-ring-avebury-500.jpg
Silbury
-near Avebury
-represents belly of pregnant woman and is symbol of fertility
-5 layers of rocks
http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/upload/img_400/Silbury_page_1_image.jpg
Skarabrae
-Scotland
-planned community around the same time as stonehenge
-corbelling: placing one stone above another, increasing cantilever
Saqqara
-South of cairo
-burial place of Pharaoh Zoser
-Architect Imhotep
-Imhotep later becomes deified for medical/healing abilities
Mastaba: bench in arabic
Imhotep builds 5 tiered mastaba
Giza
-ceremonial complex of Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure
-Khufu's pyramid was largest and first, then Khafre
-51.5 angle of pyramid
-theories on how it was built: like an onion with lots of cladded layers
Maydun
-example of pyramid built from middle outwards
-unfinished pyramid
Temple of Hawara
-robbed temple, giving the idea to Mentuhotep to build in Luxor
Temple of Mentuhotep
-Luxor "valley of the Kings and Queens"
-Burial complex for Mentuhotp II
-built into mountain wall under "Al Qurn" hornlike pyramidlike mound
Deir Al Bahri
"By the water" in Arabic
-Burial complex for Hatshepsut
-Semnut is Hatshepsuts architect ad possible lover
--temple is series of terraces
-Hypostyle Hall: structure with many columns
Temple of Amunra
Biggest temple
-in luxor
-clearastory: short wall which allows light in
-impost block: top of column which allows roof to be raised without being seen so it gives the affect that the roof is levitating
Temple of Abydos
-near Luxor
-main temple for Osiris (head is buried)
-Osiris was pharaoh who was killed by brother. Wife, Isis, magically revives him but brother kills him again by cutting him into 9 differnt pieces
-becomes symbol of egypt, renewal and life
built by Seti I
-L shaped temple
Armarna period
-new capital during Akenaten's reign
-changed from thebes/luxor
-akenaten changed his name to lover of sun
-culture changed to monotheistic, sun worshiping.
-disk shaped oriented toward sun
-son, tutankhamen changes culture and capital back
Temple of Abusimebl
-Temple for ramses II
-ramses II most powerful pharaoh. Extended Egypts borders
-four large statues of ramses in the front with wives at his feet
City of Knossos
-capital city
-King Minos
-Minotaur: Minos raised prize bull, tries to con zeus by selling him fake. Zeus gets angry and forces mino's wife to mate with cow.
-oriented north south
-lustral baths
-megaron: throne room for king
-columns skinny at the bottom, wide at the top
-city wiped out by volcanic eruption
-mycenae takes minoans as slaves
Lion gate (mycenae)
entryway into the city of mycenae
-logo is an emblem of power
-two lions stand on the side of the minoan column
tribiation
mycenae is a highly military oriented
treasury of Atreus
-used either for storage or for burial
-corbelling: placing one stone above another, increasing the cantilever to create dome without using mortar
-Tholos: narrow entryway
city of troy
-city which was leader during time between height of Mycenae and emergence of Greecce
-small
-pure speculation
Temple of Hera
-First greek stone temple
-paestum
-columns highly curved
-entasis: swelling of columns
temple of delphi
-temple of apollo
-parnassus, believed to be mountain where gods lived
-oracle
Acropolis
-pericles is a greek leader general who rebuilds parthenon by collecting money from all greek city states
5 main elements: tmeple of Athena Nike, Parthenon, Propylaea, Erectheum, Pinacotheca
Propylaea
gateway designed by Menisicles. has all types of columns to show greece uniting
Erectheum
temple of erectheus, founder of greece
caryatids: greek columns in shape of human, supports the theory that columns are based on human structure
Panatheneca
museum/dedication to builders
temple of athena Nike
commemorates battle of salinas and faces toward battleground
parthenon
Doric order with frieze that depicts panathenaic procession. slight curves lead to perfect appearing proportions, pentelic marble used.
-huge statue of athena inside.
-Iktinos and kallikrates.
-doric order
-8 colums in front instead of 6 to create more of a visual excitement
City of Agora
-Buildings oriented toward path of Panathenaic Procession
-procession: parade through Agora which all Greeks took annualy
Temple of Apollo (Bassae)
-first time in classical greek tradtion that architect looks at building as place to be entered, not a sculpture to be viewed from outside
-frieze tells mythical story of district
-architect iktenos
-engaged columns
-columns are doric outside, ionic inside, and at the end of the hallway there i a corinthian column
-doric order
Vergina
-Underground temple built for Alexander the greats father
-inhumation burial: bones left to decay then buried underground
Nereid Monument (Xanthos)
-tribute to courage
-hired greek troops to sneak in and kill Xanthus, Xantheons raise alarm but realize they wont win and all commit suicide
Vergina
-Underground temple built for Alexander the greats father
-inhumation burial: bones left to decay then buried underground
Persepolis
-temple
-unusal archtiecture
-many wood and stone pillars
-alexander was drunk and burned the temple
Nereid Monument (Xanthos)
-tribute to courage
-hired greek troops to sneak in and kill Xanthus, Xantheons raise alarm but realize they wont win and all commit suicide
Pergamon (city)
-first thing Attalus built was bank, so it at the top of the city with stairs
-altar of zeus focused on individual
-national sacrifical altar shows idea that more sacrifices were needed to please gods. blood would drip down steps
Persepolis
-temple
-unusal archtiecture
-many wood and stone pillars
-alexander was drunk and burned the temple
temple of Apollo of Didyma (miletus, turkey)
-cresmagraphion: where priests would speak ominously to worshiper and their voice would be amplified
-temple is on bottom floor
-oracle inside near spring
-ganz affect
-many columns
Pergamon (city)
-first thing Attalus built was bank, so it at the top of the city with stairs
-altar of zeus focused on individual
-national sacrifical altar shows idea that more sacrifices were needed to please gods. blood would drip down steps
Halicarnassus (bodrum, turkey)
-monument built by Mausolus's wife after his death
-statue at top is of him and his wife
temple of Apollo of Didyma (miletus, turkey)
-cresmagraphion: where priests would speak ominously to worshiper and their voice would be amplified
-temple is on bottom floor
-oracle inside near spring
-ganz affect
-many columns
Augustus
-port city
-roman face west to mediterraneans
-emperor augustus is successor to caesar
-symmetrical to impress
-insulae: think brikcs romans used instead of stone so they could fire them faster
Halicarnassus (bodrum, turkey)
-monument built by Mausolus's wife after his death
-statue at top is of him and his wife
fortuna primoginia (in augustus)
-building dedicated to the goddess of fortune
-beginning of the republic architecture, very rigid, severe
-signs of archtiecture which would later become prevalent
-arches rather than tribiation
-theathre uses slope of mountain for support and seats
-Pozzoli: substance that, when mixed with sand and water, becomes hard like concrete
Augustus
-port city
-roman face west to mediterraneans
-emperor augustus is successor to caesar
-symmetrical to impress
-insulae: think brikcs romans used instead of stone so they could fire them faster
Golden house/Domus Auria
-Neros home
-build on large plot of city land which was cleared by large fire
-after he moved in the senate declare him enemy of the state
-hired architect named fabulous
-triclinia: three couches inte for three important pople to lie down eating
-oculus; place that allows light to come in during day
fortuna primoginia (in augustus)
-building dedicated to the goddess of fortune
-beginning of the republic architecture, very rigid, severe
-signs of archtiecture which would later become prevalent
-arches rather than tribiation
-theathre uses slope of mountain for support and seats
-Pozzoli: substance that, when mixed with sand and water, becomes hard like concrete
coliseum
-sports arena
-flavian ampitheater
-built on top of buried nero house
-commisioned by emperor flavius
-floor was wood packed with sand which could absorb blood
-columns are dict.
-bela: canvs top
Golden house/Domus Auria
-Neros home
-build on large plot of city land which was cleared by large fire
-after he moved in the senate declare him enemy of the state
-hired architect named fabulous
-triclinia: three couches inte for three important pople to lie down eating
-oculus; place that allows light to come in during day
coliseum
-sports arena
-flavian ampitheater
-built on top of buried nero house
-commisioned by emperor flavius
-floor was wood packed with sand which could absorb blood
-columns are dict.
-bela: canvs top
Ara Pacis
-sacrifical altar
-frieze to respect courage
-means "era of peace"
-squar plan
Hadrian Villa
-emperor Hadrians house for philosophical discussion getaways
-concrete wall enclosed in brick
-relieving arches took load off of main arch
-bathouses for cleaning and socializing
-tree distinct parts of bathhouse
-the caldarium
(hot bath), Tepidarium (warm bath), frigidarium (cold chamber)
-bring back items from his travel
Natatio: place to rest
Pantheon (rome)
pan: all
theon: gods
more so a temple to rome than to gods
-designed by Hadrian but finished by Agrippa
-based on circle
axis mundi: idea of centrality
coffers: accordion like panel allows builders to have lighter section to take of load
teatro Di Marcello
used to be theater
-converted to housing block
-arches allowed romans to build theater on flat land instead of like greeks, who had to build on sloped
Pont du Gard
-most famous aqueduct, used for transporting water form miles away
Basilica (trier, germany)
first used as a courthouse, then converted to church when christianity gained popularity
-built by constantine
Maison Carre
-best remaining temples which still stands
-imposing, designed to impress with facade
Baalbek and the Temple of Venus
-creativity in building organization
-broke away from greek model
-impressive to make poeple fear
Diocletians Palace
-aka Spoleto
-aristotle was tutor to constantine
-constantine changed capital from rome to constantinople
cardomaximus: north-south axis
Decumanus: east- west axis
consantinople
-todays instnbul
-during byzantine empire
-tri walled barrier around city
ravenna
-capital city of western rome after rome falls
-galla placidia
-theodoric mausoleum
-san vitale
-chrisitian city
-martyrian form
Hagia Sophia (istanbul)
-anthemius and isodorus
-Basilica form (axial) to martyrian (centralized)
-half domes that take the spreading force
-pendentive: sloping shoulder which connects arches to dome ceiling
-squinch: rectangular base to circular dome
topkapi palace (istanbul)
Mehmed takes over
-series of courtyards
Mecca (city)
Ka'ba central black cube which houses holy artifacts
-makkah al mukkaramah: transliterative spelling of Mecca
-holiest site of Islam
-tawa: curcular path around Kaba pilgrims take
-Ali Quapu: shah's seat for polo matches and other main courtyard activities. Located strategically by city gate
-sharia law: law dictated by Qua'ran
-Hajaz: high desert area
Medina (city
-also known as madinah al munnawarah
-2nd holiest site in islam
-burial place of muhammad
-oval shaped with four gates
Haram al sharif (jerusalem)
-dome of the rock
holy complex: temple mount
-3rd holliest site in muslim traditions
-contains dome of rock
the great mosque
tomb of st. john the baptist inside
-tomb of saladin
-built during umayyad caliphate
-iwan: covered alcove
-Qibla: direction that should be faced when a muslim prays, facing mecca
-wodo: washing ritual required before prayer
lutfallah mosqu
-commisioned by shah abbas I
-Timurid: people led by Timur these people captured Isphahan
Alhambra Spain
-4 seperate houses said to seperate four wives
-courtyard of lions
cairo
-egypt
-included mosque madrassa of sultan hassan
-jawhar: sicilian city planner of cairo
-three part arch form
Samaara (iraq)
-capital of the abbasid caliphate
-moved there from baghdad after mamluk riots
-architect: al mutawak
-malwiya: spiral minaret
-replicated tower of babel
Palenque (city)
chiapas, Mexico
-temple of inscriptions: mortuary shrine for pacal
-three pyramid complex: temple fo the cross, foliated, and of the sun
-built by pacal the great to solidify his positionas ruler
-kan balh am: son of pacal built the three pyramid ceremonial complex after his father
Chichen-itza
yucatan, mexico
-northern mayan city which became very important after fall of palenque/calakmul
-el castillo: main chichen itza building
-built according to solar calender
snake created through shadow
Uxmal
-the palace of the governors
-Yucatan, Mexico
-Pucc style: ornate architecture pre classical
-horizontal datum
el carcol
-observatory orientated toward venus
-snail
chichen itza, yuctan, mexico
-located by souther cenote
tikal
-guatemala
-largest mayan city
-temple of the jaguar
rivaled calakmul
-temple of jaguar: giant pyramid facing setting sun built by Yikin Chan
Cenote
natural sinkholes
place used for sacrifical to gods
young children
jewelry
palatine chapel (aachen)
-no saint buried here
-church for worshipping charlemagne remains
-center of holy roman empire
-martyrian form
steps seperate gender
st. michaels church
-oldest churches built around 100 ad
-hildesheim, germany
-
lorsch abbey
-germnay
-attempt to replicate roman arches interest in pattern and color
hospice at Beaune
-hospitals became associated with churches and monasteries
-half timbering: method of building using wooden crossbracing and filling the spaces with plaster to create the actual wall
carcassonne
-castle town in southern france
-typical medieval city
-castle within town
-wall around town as well as a moat
-donjon: place of last resort
-parvis: place of gathering
church of st. foy
-romanesque cathedral
-conques, southern france
-serves to be a symbol of god and the people
-basilica plan
-inability to span large spaces with arches
-chebet: hallway for pilgrims to walk
-latin cross plan: nave transcept and apse at eastern and create cross shape towers on top
-rib vaults
st. philibert church
-tournus, france
-benedictine abbey
-tried to expand the pace monastery
-equal amount of force in every square inch of wall
-simple archtiecture
-cross vaults
-cenobicit: isolated
canigou
-islated
-pyrenne mountains
-spain
-refectory to church
-simple predictable life
-cluney order
monestary of fonte
-typical monastery form of walking from refectory to church with dormitories on side
-cloister: courtyard center
mont saint michel
-man made mountain of buildings
-off the coast of brittany in france
-wide columns at bottom to support mountain volume