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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
in which regions are primary curvatures retained?
thoracic and sacral regions
when do the secondary curvatures develop?
after birth
what separates the vertebral bodies?
intervertebral discs
which two structures form the vertebral arch?
pedicles and laminae
at which spinal level does the spinal cord end?
L1/2
what is the name for the collection of nerve roots below the spinal cord in the vertebral canal?
cauda equina
which vertebra possesses an upward projection from the body called the dens?
axis
which vertebra possesses no body or spinous process?
atlas
what type of joint is the articulation between the sacrum and coccyx?
secondary cartilaginous joint (symphysis)
which vertebrae are characterised by costal facets?
thoracic
the spinous processes of which vertebrae are short and bifid?
cervical
describe the spinous processes of thoracic vertebrae
long, slender, downward projecting
which vertebrae have large, quadrangular spinous processes?
lumbar
t/f... thoracic transverse processes are slender
false, lumbar transverse processes are slender (except L5), thoracic transverse processes are stout
where is the vertebral canal largest?
cervical spine
where is the vertebral canal narrowest?
thoracic region
what determines the direction of movement in the spine?
orientation of the facets
what movement is favoured in the thoracic region?
rotation
which two movements occur together in the cervical spine?
lateral flexion and rotation
in which region is rotation limited?
lumbar
t/f... there is an intervertebral disc between the atlas and axis?
false
which joint allows nodding?
atlantooccipital
what movement occurs at the atlantoaxial joint?
rotation
how many points of articulation are there between adjacent vertebrae?
3
which region has the greatest range of movement?
cervical
which region has the smallest range of movement?
thoracic
what is the outer layer of an intervertebral disc called?
annulus fibrosus
what is the name of the inner gel-like part of the intervertebral disc?
nucleus pulposus
what is the nerve supply to the intrinsic back muscles?
posterior rami
t/f... most back pain is due to inflammatory causes
false, most back pain is mechanical
which spinal tissues are most typically affected by inflammation?
sacroiliac joints
how common is ankylosing spondylitis? (%)
affects 1% of population
what is the function of the intervertebral discs?
to allow mobility between adjacent vertebrae and to cushion compressive forces directed along the column
will a herniation of the L5/S1 disc compress the L5 or S1 nerve root?
S1
t/f... the nucleus pulposus is avascular
true
what are vertebral endplates?
hyaline cartilaginous plates covering the upper and lower surfaces of the vertebral bodies adjacent to the nucleus pulposus
how does the nucleus pulposus receive nutrients?
by diffusion from capillaries in the vertebral bodies through the thin endplates
in which direction do intervertebral discs usually herniate?
posterolaterally
when is the load on a lumbar intervertebral disc greatest, when lying, sitting or standing?
sitting (least load while lying, then standing, then sitting)
which two intervertebral discs herniate most commonly?
L4/5 and L5/S1
which spinal roots are entirely sensory?
dorsal roots
where do the cell bodies of ventral roots lie?
ventral horn of spinal grey matter
when is back pain classified as acute?
lasting for <3 months
when is back pain classified as subacute?
lasting between 6 weeks and 3 months
when is back pain considered chronic?
lasting longer than 3 months
which cancers most commonly metastasise to bone?
lung, breast, prostate, thyroid, kidney
what is the commonest organism causing lumbar osteomyelitis?
staphylococcus aureus
which type of muscle fibre has slow oxidative metabolism?
type I
which muscle fibre type has fast glycolytic metabolism?
type II
t/f... all fibres of a motor unit are of the same type
true