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49 Cards in this Set

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Chloramphenicol / Binds to 50s ribo sub of bacteria, substrate of CYP 3A4 (cytochrome P450), Highly lipophilic / Broad / Oral / / Bacteriostatic, hepatic glucuronidate clearance, Good levels in CSF, Causes aplastic anemia (bone marrow distruction) and "gray baby syndrome", USED AS RESERVE
Chloramphenicol
Rifamycins / Targets bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase / Broad / Oral / / Bacteriostatic, Resistance develops rapidly so combined with Chemo, metabolized in liver (CYP 3A4)
Rifampin
Sulfonamides / Folate antagonist, inhibit PABA synthesis to Folic acid / Broad (Actinomycetes, Chlamydia) / Oral / / Used with Trimethoprim, lipophilic, renal excretion, adverse Crystalluria, hypersensitivity
Sulfamethoxazole (with Trimethoprim)
Trimethoprim / Folate antagonist, inhibit PABA synthesis to Folic acid / Broad (Atypical bacteria, malaria) / Oral / / Used with Sulfonamides, lipophilic, renal excretion,
Trimethoprim
Tetracyclines / Binds to 30S ribo sub of bacteria / Broad spectrum / Oral / Long acting (2x daily) / Bacteriostatic, absorption erratic with food, high concentration in skin (acne use), deposite in developing teeth, Biliary elimination, Chelates
Doxycycline
Tetracyclines / Binds to 30S ribo sub of bacteria / Broad spectrum / Oral / Short Acting (4x daily) / Bacteriostatic, absorption erratic with food, high concentration in skin (acne use), deposite in developing teeth, Renal Elimination, Chelates
Tetracycline
Carbapenems / Carbon with B-lac / Broad Spectrum / Parenteral / Short / Used with Cilistatin
Imipenem
Cephalosphorins / Large ring, B-lac / Broad Spectrum / Ig / Long (~9 hours) / Gen 3 (Use against Pseudomonas)
Ceftazidime
Cephalosphorins / Large ring, B-lac / Broad Spectrum / Ig / Long (~9 hours) / Gen 3, Binary excretion
Ceftriaxone
Cephalosphorins / Large ring, B-lac / Broad Spectrum (More G+) / / / Gen 4
Cefepime
Tetracyclines / Binds to 30S ribo sub of bacteria / Broad spectrum (MRSA) / Oral / / Bacteriostatic, deposite in developing teeth, absorption erratic with food
Tigecycline
Cephalosphorins / Large ring, B-lac / Broad Spectrum (only one for MRSA) / / / Gen 5
Ceftaroline
Macrolide / Binds to 50s ribo sub of bacteria, substrate of CYP 3A4 (cytochrome P450) / Broad Spectum (better than Eythromycin at G-) / Oral / 68 hours / Bacteriostatic, hepatic clearance,
Azithromycin
Macrolide / Binds to 50s ribo sub of bacteria, substrate of CYP 3A4 (cytochrome P450) / Broad Spectum (Better than Eythromycin at G+) / Oral / Longer than Erythromycin / Bacteriostatic, hepatic clearance,
Clarithromycin
Strepogramins / Binds to 50s ribo sub of bacteria, substrate of CYP 3A4 (cytochrome P450) / Broad Spectum (Staph/MRSA) / Parenteral / 1 hour / Bacteriostatic, hepatic clearance,
Quinupristin/Dalfopristin
Fluoroquiolones / Fluordidation inhibits DNA gyrase and topoisomerase / Extended G-, G+ (respiratory) / Oral / 7 / Gen 3, Biliary elimination, caution with epileptics and cartilage damage not for kids
Levofloxacin
Aminoglycosides / Binds to 30S ribo sub of bacteria / Extended Spectrum G- (aerobic only) Many for Pseudomonas / Parenteral / every 8 hours/ once a day / Bactericidal, Synergistic with B-lac but chemically incompatible, Distributed in extracellular water, cross placenta, excreted through urine, effected CN8, Post-antibiotic effect
Gentamicin
Aminoglycosides / Binds to 30S ribo sub of bacteria / Extended Spectrum G- (aerobic only) When other aminoglyosides fail / Parenteral / every 8 hours/ once a day / Bactericidal, Synergistic with B-lac but chemically incompatible, Distributed in extracellular water, cross placenta, excreted through urine, effected CN8, Post-antibiotic effect
Amikacin
Aminopenicillin (B-Lac) / Animo group, form zwitterions at body pH to pass / Extended Spectum / Oral use only / Short / 3x daily, Ampicillin rash from mono
Amoxicillin
Aminopenicillin (B-Lac) / Animo group, form zwitterions at body pH to pass / Extended Spectum / Parenteral / Short / Limited absorption from GI
Ampicillin
Ketolide / Binds to 23s ribo sub (part of 50S) of bacteria / Extended Spectum G+ (and some G-) / Oral / 10 hours / Bacteriostatic, hepatic clearance, severe adverse effects
Telithromycin
Macrolide / Binds to 50s ribo sub of bacteria, substrate of CYP 3A4 (cytochrome P450) / Extended Spectum G+ (and some G-) / Oral / Variable / Bacteriostatic, hepatic clearance,
Erythromycin
Cephalosphorins / Large ring, B-lac / Extended, G+, some G- (HENPEck) / Oral/Ig / / Gen 2 (Use in ab surgery, anaerobic activity)
Cefoxitin
Cephalosphorins / Large ring, B-lac / Extended, G+, some G- (PEck) / Ig / Longer / Gen 1
Cefazolin
Cephalosphorins / Large ring, B-lac / Extended, G+, some G- (PEck) / Oral use / Short / Gen 1
Cephalexin
Aminopenicillin (B-Lac) / / Extended, Includes more G- than amoxicillin / Ig / / Use against Pseudomonas, broadest of all penicillins
Piperacillin
/ Inhibits bacterial cell membrane function / G- / Topical / / Bactericidal, Topical due to severe systemic toxicity (nephro, CN8)
Colistin
/ Inhibits bacterial cell membrane function / G+ (MRSA) / IV / / Renal elimination, Bactericidal
Daptomycin
Aminopenicillin (B-Lac) / / Includes more G- than amoxicillin / Ig / / Use against Pseudomonas
Ticarcillin
Fluoroquiolones / Fluordidation inhibits DNA gyrase and topoisomerase / Narrow G- / Oral / 4 / Gen 2, Renal elimination, caution with epileptics and cartilage damage so not for kids
Ciprofloxacin
Aztreonam / / Narrow G- / Parenteral / Short / fully synthetic
Aztreonam
Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillins / Big ring sturcture to protect B-lac / Narrow G+ / Oral use only / Short /
Dicloxacillin
Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillins / Big ring sturcture to protect B-lac / Narrow G+ / For only Staph / Short /
Methicillin
Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillins / Big ring sturcture to protect B-lac / Narrow G+ / Parenteral / Short /
Oxacillin
B-Lactam / Carboxlyic acid / Narrow G+ / Parenteral, Not acid stable / Short / Only one ordered in units
Penicillin G
B-Lactam / Carboxlyic acid / Narrow G+ / For oral use, acid stable / Short or long /
Penicillin V
Glycopeptide / Prevent cross-linking of cell wall polymers / Narrow G+ / IV / Long / Also attacks cell membrane if vancomycin resistant, Renal Clearance
Telavancin
Glycopeptide / Prevent cross-linking of cell wall polymers / Narrow G+ / IV / / Poor GI absorbtion, Renal Clearance,
Vancomycin
Lincosamides / Binds to 50s ribo sub of bacteria, substrate of CYP 3A4 (cytochrome P450) / Narrow G+ (bacteroides) / Oral / 6-8 hours / Bacteriostatic, hepatic clearance, good bone penetration, Causes bad diarrhea, Superior to Lincomycin
Clindamycin
Lincosamides / Binds to 50s ribo sub of bacteria, substrate of CYP 3A4 (cytochrome P450) / Narrow G+ (bacteroides) / Oral / 6-8 hours / Bacteriostatic, hepatic clearance, good bone penetration
Lincomycin
Oxazolidinone / Binds to 50S and 30S ribo sub of bacteria / Narrow spectrum G+ / Oral / / For MRSA, SSRI interactions, Renal elmination
Linezolid
Macrocyclic Antibotic / Inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase / Narrow, only Clostridium difficile diarrhea / Oral / / Bactericidal,
Fidaxomicin
/ Metabolized by organism to toxic intermediate / Protozoan, Clostridium difficile / / / Concentration dependent, can cause GI distress
Metronidazole
Urinary antiseptic / Liberates formaldehyde in acid / / / /
Methamine
Beta-Lactamase Inhibitors / / / / / Use in combo with penicillins to enhance, I.E. - used with Amoxicillin in oral dose
Clavulanic Acid
Beta-Lactamase Inhibitors / / / / / Use in combo with penicillins to enhance
Sulbactam
Beta-Lactamase Inhibitors / / / / / Use in combo with penicillins to enhance, I.E. - used with Piperacillin for broad Spectrum
Tazobactam
Urinary antiseptic / / / / Long /
Fosfomycin
Urinary antiseptic / / / / / GI distress
Nitrofuranton