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86 Cards in this Set

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What percentage does feed represent in the total cost of pork production?
60-75%
What are the 5 categories nutrients are divided into?
1) Water
2) Protein
3) Carbohydrates (energy)
4) Minerals
5) Vitamins
What are the food materials we provide animals called?
Feedstuffs
Name the 4 common feedstuffs used in a swine ration.
1) Corn
2) Soybean Meal
3) Vitamins
4) Minerals
What is mixing feedstuffs to get the right amount of the nutrients that an animals needs called?
Balancing the ration
What 2 things does the word ration mean?
1) The quantity of nutrients needed for one animal for one day
2) The mixture of feedstuffs that will supply the nutrients needed by the animal is he/she eats a normal amount each day.
What is the most essential and cheapest of all nutrients?
Water
What is the largest single component of the pigs body?
Water
What purpose does water serve in a pigs body?
1) it is the largest single component of the pigs body
2) it passes through the body, transporting nutrients and removing wastes
What does water deprivation do to pigs?
1) reduces feed consumption
2) limits growth
3) reduces feed efficiency
Why does it take energy to digest water?
water is usually taken into the body at a lower temperature than the body itself, therefore a portion of the body's heat or energy must be used in warming the water.
Providing ice cold water to pigs in the winter will result in what?
the pig drinking less which limits performance as significantly as a lack of any other nutrient
Water provided to animals should be cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Why?
1) in the summer the heat used to warm the water to body temperature will cool the animal
2) in the winter energy should be saved to keep the animal warm, so providing warm water keeps the animal from having to warm it as much to get it to body temperature.
What is crude protein?
an indicator that indirectly reflects the pigs requirement for amino acids
What are proteins made up of?
20 simpler building blocks called amino acids
It is actually the amino acids that are the essential nutrients
What essential nutrient helps build muscle?
Amino Acids (protein)
How many essential amino acids are there for pigs?
10 - these amino acids cannot be produced within the pigs body
Corn is very low in what amino acid?
Lysine
What are the 10 essential amino acids that must be provided in swine diets?
1) lysine
2) threonin
3) tryptophan
4) methionine
5) cystine
6) isoleucine
7) histidine
8) valine
9) arginine
10) phenylalanine
What are the 4 most important amino acids in determining protein quality?
1) lysine
2) threonin
3) tryptophan
4) methionine
Most cereal grains are limited in these 4
What does protein quality refer to?
Described the amount and variety of essential amino acids found in a protein.
What feedstuffs provide the best protein quality in swine diets?
Animal by-products such as milk products, meat and bone meal
What feedstuffs provide the least protein quality in swine diets?
cereal grains such as corn, oats, wheat, etc.
The metabolism of these two different types of nutrients results in energy.
Carbohydrates and Fats
This class of nutrients is the primary fuel used to maintain body temperature and produce muscular movement.
Energy (carbohydrates and fats)
How does the body store energy?
as fat in the body
What is a major source of dietary energy for a growing pig?
corn
This macromineral is important in bone formation.
Calcium
This macromineral is important in maintaining a good appetite and water consumption.
Salt
What is another term for trace minerals.
Micromineral
Minerals that are needed in small amounts are called what?
Microminerals or trace minerals
Name 7 common microminerals in the swine diet.
Manganese
Iodine
Selenium
Copper
Zinc
Magnesium
Iron
(Minnesota's Ice Storm Caused Zeldas Mule Injury)
Name 3 common macrominerals in a swine diet.
Calcium
Phosphorus
Salt
Out of all farm animals, why are hogs the most likely to suffer from mineral deficiencies?
1) Hogs are primarily fed cereal grains and their by-products, which are low in minerals, especially calcium.
2) The skeleton of the pig, in contrast to those of other animals, supports greater weight in proportion to its size, which means it needs more mineral content than most animals
3) Hogs do not consume great amounts of roughages, which would balance the mineral deficiencies of grain.
4) Hogs are fed to grow at a maximum rate and are marketed before they reach full maturity. Emphasis on rapid growth and lean meat production requires adequate mineral concentrations, yet under these conditions, minerals are often overlooked in diet formulations. Most minerals are supplied in purchased supplements.
These nutrients assist the body in the use of other nutrients.
Vitamins
Name the two classes of vitamins.
Fat Soluble
Water Soluble
Name the fat soluble vitamins.
A
D
E
K
Name the water soluble vitamins
the B vitamins
The body can keep a reserve of this class of vitamins for a time.
Fat soluble vitamins
This class of vitamins must be provided daily because the body cannot keep a reserve.
Water soluble vitamins
This vitamin maintains the surface or epithelial cells of the skin and and linings of the digestive and respiratory tracks.
Vitamin A
This vitamin is in compounds that have been exposed to sunlight. The animal can also produce some of this vitamin when it is exposed to sunlight.
Vitamin D
This vitamin assists in the utilization of calcium.
Vitamin D
This vitamin functions to help normal muscle activity and reproduction.
Vitamin E
This vitamin prevents the membrane surrounding individual cells from deteriorating, influences production of different hormones, and defends against infection.
Vitamin E
This vitamin helps calcium and Vitamin D in metabolism.
Vitamin K
This vitamin is needed to for blood to form clots.
Vitamin K
This group of vitamins include thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, B12, and pyridoxine.
B Complex group of vitamins
These vitamins assist in the changes of nutrients into energy for growth.
B vitamins or B complex vitamins
Name 3 energy feedstuffs that may be included in a swine diet.
Corn
Whole Grain Barley
Whole Grain Oats
Wheat
Wheat Middlings
Milo
Beet Pulp
Hay or Hay Cubes
Molasses
Whole Grain Rye
Whole Cottonseed
Buckwheat
Soybean Hulls
Dried Whey
Name 3 protein feedstuffs that may be included in a swine diet.
Soybean Meal
Distillers Grain
Linseed Meal
Cottonseed Meal
Corn Gluten Meal
Corn Gluten Feed
Brewers Grain
Blood Meal
Fish Meal
Dehydrated Alfalfa Meal Pellets
Name 3 mineral feedstuffs that may be included in a swine diet.
Bone Meal
Dicalcium Phosphate
White Salt
Trace Mineral Salt
Ground Limestone
Name 5 factors that influence the pig's growth rate and nutrient requirements.
1) Genetics
2) Sex
3) Health of the pig
4) Pig's environment
5) the stage of development
What average daily gain can be expected of a show pig during the grower-finisher period?
1.5 - 2.3 pounds per day
How many pounds of feed is a show pig expected to eat per day during the grower-finisher period?
3.6 - 5.9 pounds per day
What percent protein should you feed a show pig during the grower-finisher period?
13 - 22% adjusting for a higher protein percent when they are younger and lighter to a lower protein percent as they get closer to finish
Name 2 different feeding systems a 4-H member could use to feed show pigs.
1) purchase a complete feed
2) use a corn-protein supplement program
3) a corn-soybean meal basemix program
Are requirements for vitamins and minerals for breeding gilts higher, lower or the same as those for grower-finisher hogs?
Higher
To increase a gilts body fat content during pre-breeding, a producer should feed a ____ protein, ____ energy diet.
a) high, low
b) low, high
c) high, high
b) Low protein, high energy diet
Providing a high quantity of feed for 11 to 14 days prebreeding in gilts is called what?
Flushing
What are the primary nutritional objectives in feeding a gestating gilt or sow?
1) control of weight gain and body condition (not too fat, not too skinny)
2) optimal fetal development and growth
3) development of reproductive tissues (i.e. placenta, mammary)
Protein and energy needs of the fetus increase, decrease, or stay the same during the last few weeks of pregnancy.
Increase
During gestation should a producer limit feed gilts and sows?
Yes, over-conditioned gilts and sows are common problems in many herd.
Excessive energy intake during gestation results in what 3 major problems.
1) unnecessary expense
2) reduces feed intake during lactation
3) impairs mammary development
How many pounds of feed should a saw or gilt be feed during gestation?
4-6 lbs/day
How many pounds will a gilt gain during gestation?
90-125 pounds
How many pounds will a sow gain during gestation?
75-100 pounds
How many body condition scores are there for swine?
5
1 = emaciated
2 = thin
3 = ideal
4 = fat
5 = overfat
What is the ideal body condition score in swine.
3
How does high feed intake during breeding and early gestation affect the embryo?
It decreases embryo survival, results in abortion or not maintaining a pregnancy
How close to farrowing should feed intake be increased for a gilt or sow?
the last 2 weeks of gestation (2 weeks before farrowing) because the fetus is growing rapidly and requires additional nutrition
What are the main objectives for nutrition of the lactating sow?
1) minimize weight loss and loss of body nutrient reserves
2) optimize milk production
How many pounds of milk does a lactating sow produce per day?
15 - 25 lbs/day
What is the difference in nutrient requirements between gestation and lactation in sows and gilts?
a) about the same
b) 2 times higher in lactation than gestation
c) 3 times higher in lactation than gestation
c) 3 times higher in lactation than in gestation
What is the result of a gilt or sow that looses excessive weight (muscle and fat reserves) during lactation?
she will not rebreed back very quickly or not at all
What is the result of sows that are too fat or over-conditioned when they farrow?
they eat less during lactation resulting in nutrient deficiencies and less milk production
How many pounds of feed will a lactating sow consumer per day?
9 - 15 pounds per day
What percent protein should the feed of a lactating sow be?
14-16%
(15-18% for gilts)
A protein deficiency in a lactating sow diet results in what?
decreased milk production and lower litter weaning weights
A calcium and phosphorous deficiency in a lactating sow diet results in what?
1) the sow will demineralize skeletal tissue to meet her needs for milk production
2) she will be more prone to leg factures, paralysis of the hind quarter or Downer Sow Syndrome
What is the primary object for nutrition of weanling pigs?
to optimize growth performance
Weaning pigs at too young of age results in what problems.
1) decreased gains postweaning
2) low feed intake
3) increases morbidity (sickness) or mortality (death)
Why does adding too much soybean meal to the diet of pigs weaned at a young age result in postweaning lag?
Pigs weaned at a young age develop an allergy to soybean proteins which increases the incidence of diarrhea and reduces growth rate. After about 2 weeks pigs become tolerant of soybean protein.
This feeding system involves feeding several diets for a relatively short period of time to more accurately and economically meet the pig's nutrient requirements.
Phase Feeding
Does a complex starter diet cost more, less or the same as simple corn-soybean meal starter diets?
More expensive
Wet feeding a pig to increase gain is also called what?
Slopping your pigs