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32 Cards in this Set

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Gather and analyze data framed around research question
Formulate theories based on data
Move from specific data to more general explanation
Inductive
1. Theory first
2. Researcher moves from a known or assumed position supported by theory to the particulars of the data
3. Data is gathered to determine whether theory is correct
deductive
Every methodological technique has an appropriate use
the law of the hammer
The use of measurement and observation to represent communication phenomena as amounts, frequencies, degrees, values, or intensity.
quantitative research
A precise statement indicating the nature and direction of the relationship or difference between two variables.
directional
States that a difference will occur but does not state the direction of the difference.
nondirectional
States the existence of a functional relationship between two variables.
relational
States the expectation of a difference between two or more groups.
comparative
States that no relationship, except one due to chance, exists between the variables. This is the hypothesis that is actually tested.
null
Used when researcher cannot make a prediction.
research questions
Presumably the manipulation or variation of this variable is the cause of the change in other variables.
predicter variable
independent variables
Variable that is influenced or changed by the independent variable.
outcome variable
dependent variable
Variables change simultaneously
correlation
Change in one variable leads to change in second
causal
Two variables must exist in the same general time and space
space and time
The cause (ind.) must precede the effect (dep.) variable
temporal ordering
Why variables are related
Theoretical Linkage
How variables are related
Operational Linkage
An element that is presumed to explain or provide a link between two other variables
Intervening variables
A variable that confuses or obscures the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable
confounding variables
Describes the presence or absence of some characteristic or attribute
There is no way to express partial presence
Any value imposed on the categories is arbitrary
Must have at least 2 categories and they have to be mutually exclusive and exhaustive
nominal
Measured by ranking elements in logical order from high to low or vice versa
Sequencing of data without precise measurement
Rankings are relative (zero cannot exist)
ordinal
Measured based on specific numerical scores or values
Distance between any two adjacent points is assumed to be equal
Zero is arbitrary
interval
Absolute zero
ratio
Degree to which multiple items invoke the same response from an individual answering the questionnaire
internal reliability
Calculation of the relationship between scores at two administrations of the same measurement to the same participant
test-retest reliability
Researcher constructs one test, then splits the items in half and gives each half to the same participants at two points in time
split half reliability
Inadvertently letting participant know desired response
pygmalion effect
People change or become overly familiar with the questionnaire
maturation
People leave the study
mortality/attrition
being observed changes your behavior
hawthorne effect
Extent to which conclusions developed from data collected from a sample an be extended to the population
generalizability