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32 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Gather and analyze data framed around research question
Formulate theories based on data Move from specific data to more general explanation 
Inductive


1. Theory first
2. Researcher moves from a known or assumed position supported by theory to the particulars of the data 3. Data is gathered to determine whether theory is correct 
deductive


Every methodological technique has an appropriate use

the law of the hammer


The use of measurement and observation to represent communication phenomena as amounts, frequencies, degrees, values, or intensity.

quantitative research


A precise statement indicating the nature and direction of the relationship or difference between two variables.

directional


States that a difference will occur but does not state the direction of the difference.

nondirectional


States the existence of a functional relationship between two variables.

relational


States the expectation of a difference between two or more groups.

comparative


States that no relationship, except one due to chance, exists between the variables. This is the hypothesis that is actually tested.

null


Used when researcher cannot make a prediction.

research questions


Presumably the manipulation or variation of this variable is the cause of the change in other variables.
predicter variable 
independent variables


Variable that is influenced or changed by the independent variable.
outcome variable 
dependent variable


Variables change simultaneously

correlation


Change in one variable leads to change in second

causal


Two variables must exist in the same general time and space

space and time


The cause (ind.) must precede the effect (dep.) variable

temporal ordering


Why variables are related

Theoretical Linkage


How variables are related

Operational Linkage


An element that is presumed to explain or provide a link between two other variables

Intervening variables


A variable that confuses or obscures the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable

confounding variables


Describes the presence or absence of some characteristic or attribute
There is no way to express partial presence Any value imposed on the categories is arbitrary Must have at least 2 categories and they have to be mutually exclusive and exhaustive 
nominal


Measured by ranking elements in logical order from high to low or vice versa
Sequencing of data without precise measurement Rankings are relative (zero cannot exist) 
ordinal


Measured based on specific numerical scores or values
Distance between any two adjacent points is assumed to be equal Zero is arbitrary 
interval


Absolute zero

ratio


Degree to which multiple items invoke the same response from an individual answering the questionnaire

internal reliability


Calculation of the relationship between scores at two administrations of the same measurement to the same participant

testretest reliability


Researcher constructs one test, then splits the items in half and gives each half to the same participants at two points in time

split half reliability


Inadvertently letting participant know desired response

pygmalion effect


People change or become overly familiar with the questionnaire

maturation


People leave the study

mortality/attrition


being observed changes your behavior

hawthorne effect


Extent to which conclusions developed from data collected from a sample an be extended to the population

generalizability
