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### 32 Cards in this Set

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 Gather and analyze data framed around research question Formulate theories based on data Move from specific data to more general explanation Inductive 1. Theory first 2. Researcher moves from a known or assumed position supported by theory to the particulars of the data 3. Data is gathered to determine whether theory is correct deductive Every methodological technique has an appropriate use the law of the hammer The use of measurement and observation to represent communication phenomena as amounts, frequencies, degrees, values, or intensity. quantitative research A precise statement indicating the nature and direction of the relationship or difference between two variables. directional States that a difference will occur but does not state the direction of the difference. nondirectional States the existence of a functional relationship between two variables. relational States the expectation of a difference between two or more groups. comparative States that no relationship, except one due to chance, exists between the variables. This is the hypothesis that is actually tested. null Used when researcher cannot make a prediction. research questions Presumably the manipulation or variation of this variable is the cause of the change in other variables. predicter variable independent variables Variable that is influenced or changed by the independent variable. outcome variable dependent variable Variables change simultaneously correlation Change in one variable leads to change in second causal Two variables must exist in the same general time and space space and time The cause (ind.) must precede the effect (dep.) variable temporal ordering Why variables are related Theoretical Linkage How variables are related Operational Linkage An element that is presumed to explain or provide a link between two other variables Intervening variables A variable that confuses or obscures the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable confounding variables Describes the presence or absence of some characteristic or attribute There is no way to express partial presence Any value imposed on the categories is arbitrary Must have at least 2 categories and they have to be mutually exclusive and exhaustive nominal Measured by ranking elements in logical order from high to low or vice versa Sequencing of data without precise measurement Rankings are relative (zero cannot exist) ordinal Measured based on specific numerical scores or values Distance between any two adjacent points is assumed to be equal Zero is arbitrary interval Absolute zero ratio Degree to which multiple items invoke the same response from an individual answering the questionnaire internal reliability Calculation of the relationship between scores at two administrations of the same measurement to the same participant test-retest reliability Researcher constructs one test, then splits the items in half and gives each half to the same participants at two points in time split half reliability Inadvertently letting participant know desired response pygmalion effect People change or become overly familiar with the questionnaire maturation People leave the study mortality/attrition being observed changes your behavior hawthorne effect Extent to which conclusions developed from data collected from a sample an be extended to the population generalizability