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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Axial skeleton
bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
Appendicular skeleton
bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder, and hip
Long bones
longer than they are wide (e.g., humerus)
Short bones
Cube-shaped bones of the wrist and ankle
Bones that form within tendons (e.g., patella)
Flat bones
thin, flattened, and a bit curved (e.g., sternum, and most skull bones)
Irregular bones
bones with complicated shapes (e.g., vertebrae and hip bones)
Function of Bones
Support
Protection
Movement
Mineral storage
Blood cell formation
Hyaline Cartilage
Articulate Surfaces
Elastic Cartilage
Ear
Epiglottis
Fibrocartilage Cartilage
Spine
Knees
Pubic Symphysis
Cartilage Growth
Mitosis
Appositional (outside)
Interstitial (inside)
Tuberosity
Large rounded, may be rough

Muscle & Ligament attach
Crest
narrow ridge - prominent

Muscle & Ligament attach
Trochanter
large, blunt, irregular - FEMUR

Muscle & Ligament attach
Line
narrow ridge

Muscle & Ligament attach
Tubercle
small rounded

Muscle & Ligament attach
Spine
Sharp slender projections

Muscle & Ligament attach
Process
Any bony prominence

Muscle & Ligament attach
Head
carried on narrow neck

Help form Joints
Facet
smooth, flat articular surface

Help form Joints
Condyle
rounded articular projection

Help form Joints
Ramus
armlike bar of bone (I-beam)

Help form Joints
Meatus
Canal-like passageway

Depressions & Openings for blood vessels & nerves
Sinus
Cavity in bone filled with air, lined with mucous membrane

Depressions & Openings for blood vessels & nerves
Fossa
Shallow basin like depression - often articular surface

Depressions & Openings for blood vessels & nerves
Groove
Furrow

Depressions & Openings for blood vessels & nerves
Fissue
narrow, slite-like opening

Depressions & Openings for blood vessels & nerves
Foramen
Round or oval opening

Depressions & Openings for blood vessels & nerves
Epiphysis
Proximal & Distal ends of long bone.
Articular cartilage, compact bone, spongy bone.
Diaphysis
middle of long bone
Epiphseal plate
growth
Spongy Bone
red marrow
Medullary cavity
yellow marrow
periostium
outer membrane
sharpey's fibers
attached perioustium
endosteum
inner membrane
flat bone
red marrow
diploe
spongy bone
Epiphysis
Proximal & Distal ends of long bone.
Articular cartilage, compact bone, spongy bone.
Diaphysis
middle of long bone
Epiphseal plate
growth
Spongy Bone
red marrow
Medullary cavity
marrow
flat bone = red
diaphysis of long bone = yellow (fatty) (adipose)
dipole
spongy bone
red marrow
lamelle
layers of ostenon, circumferential, intersitial.
twisting collogene fibers in opposite directions
central canal
Haversian
center of osteon
blood vessels, nerves
osteocytes
mature bone cells, reside in lacuna between lamelle
canaliculus
small channels between lamelle
trabeculae
strut or thin plate of spongy bone
perforating canals
Volkmann's
osteoblast
bone-forming cells
Osteocytes
mature bone cells
Osteoclasts
large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix
multi-nucleated
Osteoid
unmineralized bone matrix composed of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and collagen
Intramembranous Ossification
mesenchymal cells
collegen framework
osteoblasts - osteoids, ossification center
ossification zone
new bone formation
calcification zone
matrix calcifies, chondrocytes die
hypertrophic zone
older cartilage cells enlarge
growth/proliferation zone
cartilage mitosis
resting/quiescent zone
bone
PTH
para-thyriod hormone
osteoclasts release Ca2+ from bone
calcitronin
thyroid
Ca salts redeposited
osteocytes & blasts
breaks
breaks
rickets
lack vit-d
osteomalacia
soft bone, poor mineralization
osteoporosis
women, hormone
paget's
excess & hapahazard bone formation and resorption