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228 Cards in this Set

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Fetal landmarks

Day 0
Fertilization by sperm,
initiating embryogenesis.
Fetal landmarks

Within week 1
Implantation (as a blastocyst).
Fetal landmarks

Within week 2
Bilaminar disk (epiblast:hypoblast).
Fetal landmarks

Within week 3
Gastrulation.
Primitive streak, notochord, and neural plate begin to form.
Fetal landmarks

Weeks 3–8 wrt
Neural tube formed.
Organogenesis.
Extremely susceptible to teratogens.
Fetal landmarks

Week 4
Heart begins to beat: 4 chambers in week 4.
Upper and lower limb buds begin to form.
Fetal landmarks

Week 8
Fetal movement; fetus looks like a baby.
Fetal landmarks

Week 10
Genitalia have male/female characteristics.
Fetal landmarks

plates with functions
Alar plate - Sensory
Basal plate - Motor
Fetal landmarks

first week
Fertilization - day 1
Zygote - day 2
Morula - day 3
blastocyst - day 5
implantation - day 6
Fetal landmarks when does the following occur

Implantation (as a blastocyst).
within week 1
Fetal landmarks when does the following occur

Bilaminar disk (epiblast:hypoblast).
Within week 2
Fetal landmarks when does the following occur

Primitive streak,
notochord, and neural plate begin to form.
Within week 3
Fetal landmarks when does the following occur

Gastrulation.
Within week 3
Fetal landmarks when does the following occur

Neural tube formed.
Weeks 3–8
Fetal landmarks when does the following occur

Organogenesis.
Weeks 3–8
Fetal landmarks when does the following occur

Extremely susceptible to teratogens.
Weeks 3–8
Fetal landmarks when does the following occur

Heart begins to beat
week 4

4 chambers in week 4.
Fetal landmarks when does the following occur

Upper and lower limb buds begin to form.
Week 4
Fetal landmarks when does the following occur

fetus looks like a baby.
Week 8
Fetal landmarks when does the following occur

Fetal movement
Week 8
Fetal landmarks when does the following occur

Genitalia have male/female characteristics.
Week 10
Rule of 2’s for 2nd week
--2 germ layers (bilaminar disk): epiblast, hypoblast.
--2 cavities: amniotic cavity, yolk sac.
--2 components to placenta: cytotrophoblast,
syncytiotrophoblast.
The epiblast

precursor to what and what it does/forms
(precursor to
ectoderm) invaginates to
form primitive streak. Cells
from the primitive streak give
rise to both intraembryonic mesoderm and endoderm.
invaginates to form primitive streak. Cells from the primitive streak give rise to both intraembryonic mesoderm and endoderm.
The epiblast (precursor to
ectoderm)
Rule of 3’s for 3rd week
3 germ layers (gastrula): ectoderm,
mesoderm,
endoderm.
Embryologic derivatives

Mesodermal defects =
VACTERL:
Vertebral defect, Anal atresia, Cardiac defects,
Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal defects,
Limb defects (bone and muscle).
Embryologic derivatives

Surface ectoderm
Adenohypophysis; lens of eye; epithelial linings of skin, ear, eye, and nose; epidermis.
Embryologic derivatives

Neuroectoderm
Neurohypophysis, CNS neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, pineal gland.
Embryologic derivatives

Neural crest
ANS, dorsal root ganglia, melanocytes, chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla,
enterochromaffin cells, pia and arachnoid, celiac ganglion, Schwann cells, odontoblasts,
parafollicular (C) cells of thyroid, laryngeal cartilage, bones of the skull
Embryologic derivatives

Endoderm
Gut tube epithelium and derivatives (e.g., lungs, liver, pancreas, thymus, parathyroid, thyroid follicular cells).
Embryologic derivatives

Notochord
Induces ectoderm to form neuroectoderm (neural plate). Its only postnatal derivative is the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disk.
Embryologic derivatives

Mesoderm
Dura mater, connective tissue, muscle, bone, cardiovascular structures, lymphatics, blood
urogenital structures, serous linings of body cavities (e.g., peritoneal), spleen,
adrenal cortex, kidneys.
7. Common congenital
malformations
1. Heart defects
2. Hypospadias
3. Cleft lip (with or without cleft palate)
4. Congenital hip dislocation
5. Spina bifida
6. Anencephaly
7. Pyloric stenosis
Associated with projectile
vomiting.
Pyloric stenosis
Teratogens effect/cause

Alcohol
Birth defects and mental
retardation (leading cause); fetal alcohol syndrome
Teratogens effect/cause

mental retardation (leading cause)
Alcohol
Teratogens effect/cause

ACE inhibitors
Renal damage
Teratogens effect/cause

Renal damage
ACE inhibitors
Teratogens effect/cause

Abnormal fetal development
and fetal addiction
Cocaine
Teratogens effect/cause

Cocaine
Abnormal fetal development
and fetal addiction
Teratogens effect/cause

Vaginal clear cell
adenocarcinoma
Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
Teratogens effect/cause

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
Vaginal clear cell
adenocarcinoma
Teratogens effect/cause

Iodide
Congenital goiter or
hypothyroidism
Teratogens effect/cause

Congenital goiter or
hypothyroidism
Iodide
Teratogens effect/cause

13-cis-retinoic acid
Extremely high risk for birth
defects (hearing and visual impairment, missing earlobes, facial dysmorphism, and mental retardation)
Teratogens effect/cause

Extremely high risk for birth
defects (hearing and visual impairment, missing earlobes, facial dysmorphism, and mental retardation)
13-cis-retinoic acid
Teratogens effect/cause

Thalidomide
Limb defects (“flipper” limbs)
Teratogens effect/cause

Limb defects (“flipper” limbs)
Thalidomide
Teratogens effect/cause

Tobacco
Preterm labor, placental
problems, attention-deficit
hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD)
Teratogens effect/cause

Preterm labor, placental
problems, attention-deficit
hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD)
Tobacco
Teratogens effect/cause

Warfarin
multiple
Teratogens effect/cause

anticonvulsants
multiple
Teratogens effect/cause

Xrays
multiple
Teratogens effect/cause

multiple
Warfarin, x-rays, anticonvulsants
FAS

what are the defects
craniofacial abnormalities
microcephaly
limb dislocation
heart and lung fistulas
FAS

mech
unknown, but may include inhibition of cell migration
Umbilical cord contents and where the blood comes from/goes
Contains 2 umbilical arteries, which return deoxygenated blood from fetal internal
iliac arteries,
and 1 umbilical vein, which
supplies oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus.
Allantoic duct role
removes nitrogenous waste (from
fetal bladder, like a urethra).
Single umbilical artery is
associated with
congenital and chromosomal anomalies.
Umbilical cord structure and congenital and chromosomal anomalies.
Single umbilical artery is
associated with congenital
and chromosomal
anomalies.
Wharton´s jelly

what, derivation, structure and function
a gelatinous substance within the umbilical cord, composed of cells that originate in the original egg and sperm of conception. It is largely made up of mucopolysaccharides (hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate). As a mucous tissue it protects and insulates umbilical blood vessels.
Heart embryology what this gives rise to

Truncus arteriosus
Ascending aorta and pulmonary
trunk
Heart embryology what this gives rise to

Bulbus cordis
Smooth parts of left and right
ventricle
Heart embryology what this gives rise to

Primitive ventricle
Trabeculated parts of left and
right ventricle
Heart embryology what this gives rise to

Primitive atria
Trabeculated left and
right atrium
Heart embryology what this gives rise to

Left horn of sinus venosus (SV)
Coronary sinus
Heart embryology what this gives rise to

Right horn of SV
Smooth part of right atrium
Heart embryology what this gives rise to

Right common cardinal vein and right anterior
cardinal vein
SVC
What embyonic structure gives rise to

Ascending aorta and pulmonary
trunk
Truncus arteriosus
What embyonic structure gives rise to

Smooth parts of left and right
ventricle
Bulbus cordis
What embyonic structure gives rise to

Trabeculated parts of left and
right ventricle
Primitive ventricle
What embyonic structure gives rise to

Trabeculated left and
right atrium
Primitive atria
What embyonic structure gives rise to

Coronary sinus
Left horn of sinus venosus (SV)
What embyonic structure gives rise to

Smooth part of right atrium
Right horn of SV
What embyonic structure gives rise to

SVC
Right common cardinal vein and right anterior
cardinal vein
Fetal erythropoiesis

by time frame
Young Liver Synthesizes Blood.

Fetal erythropoiesis occurs in:
1. Yolk sac (3–8 wk)
2. Liver (6–30 wk)
3. Spleen (9–28 wk)
4. Bone marrow (28 wk onward)
Fetal hemoglobin =
Adult hemoglobin =
Fetal hemoglobin =α2γ2. (gamma)

Adult hemoglobin =α2β2.
Fetal component of the placenta and where/function
cytotrophoblast composes the inner layer of chorionic villi. Syncytiotrophoblast is the outer layer and secretes hCG
placenta

what is the outer layer and secretes hCG
Syncytiotrophoblast
placenta

what composes the inner layer of chorionic villi
cytotrophoblast
maternal component of the placenta
Decidua basalis derived from the endometrium
steps in the interventricular septum development
1. muscular interventricular septum forms with an interventricular foramen
2.(twisting)aorticopulmonary septum devides the truncus into the 2 trunks
3. 2 septums meet, fuse, become membranous, and close the interventricular foramen
Fetal circulation

3 important shunts:
foramen ovale
ductus arteriosis
ductus venosus
Fetal circulation

foramen ovale
Most oxygenated blood
reaching the heart via the
IVC is diverted through
the foramen ovale and
pumped out the aorta to
the head.
Fetal circulation

ductus arteriosis
Deoxygenated blood from
the SVC is expelled into
the pulmonary artery and
ductus arteriosus to the
lower body of the fetus.
Fetal circulation

ductus venosus
Blood entering the fetus
hrough the umbilical vein
s conducted via the
ductus venosus into the
VC.
Fetal circulation

changes at birth
infant takes a breath;
↓ resistance in pulmonary
vasculature causes ↑ left atrial pressure vs. right atrial pressure; foramen ovale
closes; ↑ in O2 leads to
↓ in prostaglandins, causing
closure of ductus arteriosus.
drugs to open or close PDA
Indomethacin closes the PDA.

Prostaglandins keep a patent
PDA open.
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

Umbilical vein
ligamentum teres hepatis
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

ligamentum teres hepatis
Umbilical vein
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

Umbilical arteries
mediaL umbilical ligaments
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

medial umbilical ligaments
UmbiLical arteries
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

Ductus arteriosus
––ligamentum arteriosum
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

ligamentum arteriosum
Ductus arteriosus
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

Ductus venosus
ligamentum venosum
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

ligamentum venosum
Ductus venosus
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

Foramen ovale
fossa ovalis
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

fossa ovalis
Foramen ovale
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

median umbilical ligament
AllaNtois––urachus––mediaN umbilical ligament
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

Allantois
AllaNtois––urachus––mediaN umbilical ligament
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

Notochord
nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disk
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disk
Notochord
Fetal/postnatal corresponding structure

Urachal cyst or sinus is a
remnant.
The urachus
What is contained in the falciform ligament
round ligament and paraumbilical veins.
The urachus is the part of
the allantoic duct between the
bladder and the umbilicus.
what is part of the allantoic duct between the bladder and the umbilicus.
urachus
Aortic arch derivatives

1st
part of MAXillary artery.
Aortic arch derivatives

part of MAXillary artery.
1st
Aortic arch derivatives

2nd
Stapedial artery and hyoid artery.
Aortic arch derivatives

Stapedial artery and hyoid artery.
2nd
Aortic arch derivatives

3rd
common Carotid artery and proximal part of internal carotid artery.
Aortic arch derivatives

common Carotid artery and proximal part of internal carotid artery.
3rd
Aortic arch derivatives

4th
on left, aortic arch; on right, proximal part of
right subclavian artery.
Aortic arch derivatives

on left, aortic arch; on right, proximal part of
right subclavian artery.
4th
Aortic arch derivatives

6th
proximal part of pulmonary arteries and (on
left only) ductus arteriosus.
Aortic arch derivatives

proximal part of pulmonary arteries and (on
left only) ductus arteriosus.
6th
Aortic arch derivatives

mnemonic
-1st arch is MAXimal.
-Second = Stapedial.
-C is 3rd letter of alphabet.
-4th arch (4 limbs)=systemic.
-6th arch = pulmonary and the
pulmonary-to-systemic shunt
(ductus arteriosus).
Branchial apparatus

different parts and what they are from
Branchial clefts are derived from ectoderm.
Branchial arches are derived from mesoderm and
neural crests.
Branchial pouches are derived from endoderm.
Branchial apparatus aka/s
Branchial apparatus is also
called pharyngeal apparatus.
Clefts are also called grooves.
pharyngeal apparatus aka/s
Branchial apparatus is also
called pharyngeal apparatus.
Clefts are also called grooves.
Branchial apparatus layers
CAP covers outside from inside
(Clefts = ectoderm, Arches =
mesoderm, Pouches =
endoderm).
Branchial arch 1 derivatives

muscles
Meckel’s cartilage:
Mandible,
Malleus, incus, sphenoMandibular ligament.
Branchial arch 1 derivatives

cartilage
Muscles: Muscles of Mastication (temporalis, Masseter, lateral and Medial pterygoids)
Mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, anterior
2⁄3 of tongue.
Branchial arch 1 derivatives

nerves
Nerve: CN V2 and CN V3.
Branchial arch 2 derivatives

muscles
Reichert’s cartilage: Stapes, Styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, Stylohyoid ligament.
Branchial arch 2 derivatives

cartilage
Muscles: muscles of facial expression, Stapedius, Stylohyoid, posterior belly of digastric.
Branchial arch 2 derivatives

nerves
Nerve: CN VII.
Branchial arch 3 derivatives

muscles
Cartilage: greater horn of hyoid.
Branchial arch 3 derivatives

cartilage
Muscle: stylopharyngeus.
Branchial arch 3 derivatives

nerves
Nerve: CN IX.
Branchial arch 4,6 derivatives

cartilages
Cartilages: thyroid, cricoid, arytenoids, corniculate,
cuneiform.
Branchial arch 4 derivatives

muscles
Muscles (4th arch): most pharyngeal constrictors,
cricothyroid, levator veli palatini.
Branchial arch 4 derivatives

nerves
Nerve: 4th arch––CN X (superior laryngeal branch);
Branchial arch 6 derivatives

muscles
Muscles (6th arch): all intrinsic muscles of larynx
except cricothyroid.
Branchial arch 6 derivatives

nerves
6th arch––CN X (recurrent laryngeal branch).
which Branchial arch

form posterior
1/3 of tongue.
Arches 3 and 4
which Branchial arch

Meckel’s cartilage: Mandible, Malleus, incus, sphenoMandibular ligament.
1
which Branchial arch

Muscles: Muscles of Mastication (temporalis, Masseter, lateral and Medial pterygoids),
Mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, anterior
2⁄3 of tongue.
1
which Branchial arch

Nerve: CN V2 and CN V3.
1
which Branchial arch

Reichert’s cartilage: Stapes, Styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, Stylohyoid ligament.
2
which Branchial arch

Muscles: muscles of facial expression, Stapedius, Stylohyoid, posterior belly of digastric.
2
which Branchial arch

Nerve: CN VII.
2
which Branchial arch

Cartilage: greater horn of hyoid.
3
which Branchial arch

Muscle: stylopharyngeus.
3
which Branchial arch

Nerve: CN IX.
3
which Branchial arch

Cartilages: thyroid, cricoid, arytenoids, corniculate,
cuneiform.
4-6
which Branchial arch

Muscles: most pharyngeal constrictors,
cricothyroid, levator veli palatini.
(4th arch)
which Branchial arch

Muscles : all intrinsic muscles of larynx
except cricothyroid.
(6th arch)
which Branchial arch

CN X (superior laryngeal branch)
4th
which Branchial arch

CN X (recurrent laryngeal branch).
6th
which Branchial arch

makes no major developmental contributions.
Arch 5
Branchial arch innervation
and implications
Arch 1 -- CN V2 and V3.
Arch 2 -- CN VII.
Arch 3 -- CN IX.
Arch 4 and 6 --CN X.

with the exception of V2(no motor) these are the only CN's that have both sensory and motor components
Tongue development wrt arches and sensation/taste
1st branchial arch forms anterior 2/3 (thus sensation
via CN V3, taste via CN VII).

3rd and 4th arches form posterior
1/3 (thus sensation and taste mainly via CN IX,
extreme posterior via CN X).
Tongue motor innervation
Motor innervation is via CN XII.
Taste sensory nucleus of the brain and CN's
Taste is CN VII, IX, X
(solitary nucleus);
Pain and motor innervation of the tounge
pain is CN V3, IX, X;
motor is CN XII.
Branchial cleft derivatives

1st
1st cleft develops into external auditory meatus.
Branchial cleft derivatives

2nd-4th
2nd through 4th clefts form temporary cervical sinuses
which are obliterated by proliferation of 2nd arch
mesenchyme.
Persistent cervical sinus can
lead to

what and where
a branchial cyst in
the lateral neck.

Thyroglossal duct cyst in
midline neck.
Ear development

Bones
Malleus/incus––
1st arch
Stapes––2nd arch
Ear development

Muscles
Tensor tyMpani (V3)––1st arch

Stapedius (VII)––2nd arch
Ear development

External auditory meatus
1st cleft
Ear development

eustachian tube
Eardrum, eustachian tube––1st
branchial membrane
Ear development

Eardrum
Eardrum, eustachian tube––1st
branchial membrane
branchial membranes
are located at junctions of clefts with pouches
are located at junctions of clefts with pouches
branchial membranes
Branchial pouch derivatives

1st pouch
middle ear cavity, eustachian
tube, mastoid air cells.
Branchial pouch derivatives

middle ear cavity, eustachian
tube, mastoid air cells.
1st pouch
Branchial pouch derivatives

2nd pouch
develops into epithelial lining of palatine tonsil.
Branchial pouch derivatives

develops into epithelial lining of palatine tonsil.
2nd pouch
Branchial pouch derivatives

3rd pouch
3rd pouch (dorsal wings) develops into inferior
parathyroids.

3rd pouch (ventral wings) develops into thymus.
Branchial pouch derivatives

develops into inferior
parathyroids.
3rd pouch (dorsal wings)
Branchial pouch derivatives

develops into thymus.
3rd pouch (ventral wings)
Branchial pouch derivatives

4th pouch
develops into superior parathyroids.
Branchial pouch derivatives

develops into superior parathyroids.
4th pouch
Branchial pouch

Aberrant development of 3rd
and 4th pouches →
DiGeorge syndrome
Branchial derivatives

DiGeorge syndrome
Aberrant development of 3rd
and 4th pouches
Thyroid development

arises from and movement
Thyroid diverticulum arises from floor of primitive pharynx, descends into neck.
Thyroid development

WRT tounge
Connected to tongue by
thyroglossal duct, which normally disappears but may
persist as pyramidal lobe of thyroid.
Thyroid development

wrt normal remnant
persist as pyramidal lobe of thyroid. Foramen cecum is normal remnant of thyroglossal duct.
Most common ectopic thyroid tissue
the tongue.
Cleft lip
failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial
nasal processes (formation of 1° palate).
failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial
nasal processes (formation of 1° palate).
Cleft lip
Cleft palate
failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the nasal septum, and/or the median palatine process (formation of 2° palate).
failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes, the nasal septum, and/or the median palatine process (formation of 2° palate).
Cleft palate
Diaphragm embryology

derivations
Several Parts Build Diaphragm.
1. Septum transversum
2. Pleuroperitoneal folds
3. Body wall
4. Dorsal mesentery of esophagus
Diaphragm migration
Diaphragm descends during
development but maintains
innervation from above
C3–C5. “C3, 4, 5 keeps the
diaphragm alive.”
Pancreas is derived from the
foregut
Pancreas where the different parts derive from
Ventral pancreatic bud becomes pancreatic head, uncinate process (lower half of head), and main pancreatic duct.

Dorsal pancreatic bud becomes everything else (body, tail, isthmus, and accessory pancreatic duct).
Spleen arises from/blood supply
dorsal mesentery but is supplied by artery of foregut.
Annular pancreas
ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds abnormally encircle duodenum;forms a ring of pancreatic tissue that may cause duodenal narrowing.
ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds abnormally encircle duodenum;forms a ring of pancreatic tissue that may cause duodenal narrowing.
Annular pancreas
borders from foregut to hind gut
1. Foregut––pharynx to duodenum
2. Midgut––duodenum to transverse colon
3. Hindgut––distal transverse colon to rectum
Kidney embryology
1. Pronephros––week 4 then degenerates
2. Mesonephros––first trimester then contributes to male genital system
3. Metanephros––permanent
Mesonephric (wolffian) duct

becomes
SEED.

Seminal vesicles, Epididymis,
Ejaculatory duct, and Ductus deferens.
Mesonephric duct aka
wolffian duct
wolffian duct aka
Mesonephric duct
Paramesonephric duct aka
müllerian duct
müllerian duct aka
Paramesonephric duct
Paramesonephric (müllerian) duct

becomes
Develops into fallopian tube, uterus, and part of vagina.
Develops into fallopian tube, uterus, and part of vagina.
Paramesonephric (müllerian) duct
Develops into Seminal vesicles, Epididymis, Ejaculatory duct, and Ductus deferens.
Mesonephric (wolffian) duct
Müllerian inhibiting substance

secreted by/for
by testes suppresses development of paramesonephric ducts in males.
↑ androgens cause development of ?????? ducts.
Mesonephric (wolffian) duct
what cause development of mesonephric ducts.
↑ androgens
Male detrmining gene and process
SRY gene on Y Chr codes for testis-determining factor. leads to Müllerian inhibiting substance secreted by testes suppresses development of
paramesonephric ducts in males.
male homolog of

Glans clitoris
Glans penis
male homolog of

Vestibular bulbs
Corpus spongiosum
male homolog of

Greater vestibular glands
(of Bartholin)
Bulbourethral glands
(of Cowper)
male homolog of

Urethral and paraurethral glands
(of Skene)
Prostate gland
male homolog of

Labia minora
Ventral shaft of penis
(penile urethra)
male homolog of

Labia majora
Scrotum
female homolog of

Glans penis
Glans clitoris
female homolog of

Corpus spongiosum
Vestibular bulbs
female homolog of

Bulbourethral glands
(of Cowper)
Greater vestibular glands
(of Bartholin)
female homolog of

Prostate gland
Urethral and paraurethral glands
(of Skene)
female homolog of

Ventral shaft of penis
(penile urethra)
Labia minora
female homolog of

Scrotum
Labia majora
Male/female genital homologues

what drives it towards male vs female
Dihydrotestosterone
vs
Estrogen
In the male what does the Genital tubercle become
Glans penis
In the male what does the Urogenital sinus become
-Corpus spongiosum
-Bulbourethral gland
(of Cowper)
-Prostate gland
In the male what does the Urogenital folds become
Ventral shaft of penis
(penile urethra)
In the male what does the Labioscrotal swelling become
Scrotum
In the female what does the Genital tubercle become
Glans clitoris
In the female what does the Urogenital sinus become
-Vestibular bulbs
-Greater vestibular glands
(of Bartholin)
-Urethral and paraurethral glands
(of Skene)
In the female what does the Urogenital folds become
Labia minora
In the female what does the Labioscrotal swelling become
Labia majora