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93 Cards in this Set

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conservation
using resources wisely

-saving for the future
preservation
non-use of a resource

protection unimpaired for the future
exploitation
maximum use of a resource
resource
material thing with human utility
natural resource
resource that comes from the

earth / atmosphere / biosphere
4 questions to compare authors views on nature
1 - what is nature
(whats included / excluded...
what does nature mean / represent)

2 - what is human's relationship to nature?
(part / apart from nature)

3- how SHOULD humans use nature?

4- what or who SHOULD regulate human uses?
Kate's part / apart

4 perspectives on our relationship to nature
1- "nature as given"

2- "nature as mystery"

3- "nature as dominion"

4- "nature as system"
kate's perspective 1

"nature as given"
-no difference between human-impacted and "natural" enviro

-understanding based on objects providing basic needs

-no seperation between humans and the environment (man is just another animal)
kate's perspective 2

"nature as mystery"
-wonder / mystery / a sacred object / a symbol /
a mystical singular wholeness

-religious practices that provide meaning and utility to cultures
--interpret nature
--maintain social cohesion
--preserve ecology
kate's perspective 3

"nature as dominion"
idea existed before judio-christian tradition -- not as prevalent now

"nature was given to man to make a living" ==bible

"masters" of nature must understand its workings (descartes)
kate's perspective 4

"nature as system"
observing / classifying
-explaining nature in systematic way

-put nature into systematic framework


1700s - physico theology = study of god in the works of nature

teleology - doctrine that nature has ultimate purpose / goal

*modern day scientific inquiry*
what does NATURE represent to crevecoeur

in Letters From an American Farmer
nature represents:

-livelihood
-boundless opportunity
-freedom
--opportunity to control one's destiny
-source of amusement / awe / admiration
---bees = orderly / industrius / predictable

-possesion (private property)
what does WILDERNESS represent to crevecoeur

in Letters From an American Farmer
-savagery

-isolation leads to anti-social behavior

-danger

-hostility

-sloth (aversion to work / laziness)

-something to be mastered
Values reflected in

Letters From an American Farmer

WHAT IS GOOD????
GOOD:
-industry
-sobriety
-hard work
-tolerance of different social classes
-mastery of nature
-progress
-self sufficiency
-independence
Values reflected in

Letters From an American Farmer

WHAT IS BAD????
BAD:
-taxes
-lack of religion
-selfishness
-WILDERNESS
Are humans part / apart from nature

LETTERS from an American Farmer
human's shouldn't get too close to nature

humans need to SUBDUE nature

---- and thus are APART from nature
how should humans use nature?

LETTERS from and American Farmer
nature is there to provide livelihood

humans should TAME nature

nature is limitless
who should regulate use of nature?

LETTERS from an American Farmer
government should interfere MINIMALLY

-individual motivation to better selves
view of America - the "NEW WORLD"

LETTERS form an American Farmer
-endless

-untamed

-available for taking

-lightly populated
(some agriculture, hunting, gathering)
view of Europe - the "OLD WORLD"

LETTERS form an American Farmer
-concentrated land ownership

-non-landowners can't get ahead

-well established government

-no wilderness left
(even high mtns settled)

-forests carefully managed
OLD WORLD INTELLECTUAL TRADITIONS (1600s)

-the 3 enlightenment thinkers
DESCARTES:
-human consciouness sets us apart from nature
-superior to animals

LOCKE:
-private property
(applied to nature)
-land = commodity to be owned

LINNAEUS:
-nature is a collection of discrete objects that can be CLASSIFIED
-described & thus understood
-sets humans apart from nature
"pristine"
minimally altered

perfect

beautiful
what is nature?

LEWIS AND CLARK
-there to be observed
-mostly unemotional

-food (game)

-entertainment (hunting for fun, watching friends get chased by bears)

-challenge (wind / other obstacles to overcome)

-wild and savage (empty)
---(but no judeo-christian judgement)

-something to measure / count --SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVE

-POSSESION
(entitled to use as they pleased)

-nat'l pride
-nat'l destiny
part / apart from nature?

LEWIS and CLARK
-IN nature

-apart from (how they used it)
--killing for study / collection

-scientific perspective

-ABOVE IT-
(couldn't beleive nature could be as beautiful as human creation)
how should humans use nature?

LEWIS AND CLARK
take resources for human use
How should use be regulated?

LEWIS AND CLARK
we're not expected to give anything back

occasionally personal values prevent waste
the falls

LEWIS AND CLARK
=sublime

first mention of aesthetic / spriritual value of nature
EMERSON background
1803 - 1882

-born in boston

-family of merchants / ministers

-father = unitarian minister and chaplain of MA senate

-boston latin school

-harvard college

-taught school then became minister and married

-WIFE DIED 1831

-1832 resigned ministry
-went to EUROPE
-visited Coleridge, Wordsworth, Carlyle

-met with scientists -- visited botanical gardens
(INTERESTED IN NATURE / NATURAL SCIENCE)

-returned from Europe

-Moved to CONCORD and remarried

-wrote "NATURE"

-published thoreau
THOREAU background
1817 - 1863 -Concord MA

-harvard

-met emerson in Concord after graduation

-failed at being a teacher

-worked for father making pencils

-emerson encouraged him to keep journal

-aspired to be a poet

-less socially adept than emerson

-built house at walden pond - on emerson's land

-foraged, grew own food, wrote and mediated

-wrote "WALDEN"
American settlers brought pre-conceived notions about nature with them
-this reflected how they wrote about the new world

(guest lecture Bickman)
bradford

morton

emerson

thoreau
BRADFORD

(guest lecture)
1620s colonist on mayflower

-metaphors in nature

-defined america by what was missing ((-) definition) == civilization

-bible template for his reality

-weather was threatening / dangerous

-native americans = savage barbarians

-wilderness = hideous and desolate

-salvation comes from heaven, not from earth

-nature falls as humans fall

-divide between humans and nature

-
MORTON

(guest lecture)
1620s MA colonist

-NOT a puritan

-positive language to describe land (exuberance / abundance / fertility)

-onomatopoeia (murmur, buzz)

-influenced by classical tradition

-land envisioned as womans body

-nature is REDEMPTIVE

-nature erotic, nurturing

-american landscape related to our capacity for wonder
in new world people could enact fantasy of returning to garden of eden

(guest lecture)
visions of pastoral

pastoral poetry popular in england

pastoral = rural / simple
Emerson

(guest lecture)
seperation between nature and self dissolve

you are what you see --> ecstacy

nature, human, divine become one -->moment of harmony

finds ecstacy in nature, not church
Thoreau's Walden

(guest lecture)
doesn't go into nature SEEKING enlightenment

must receive enlightenment, not look for it

the unity of all things

thoreau uses all the senses (unlike emerson-- just visual)

-recreates his own pastoral vision at waldon

-god found in nature / not church
what is nature?

EMERSON
nature is spirituality
-find god thru connection with nature

nature is rejuvination
-being freed from daily routine

'''the light of the woods is like a constant -morning- and is stimulating, heroic

-intellectual / contemplative approach to nature
what is nature?

THOREAU
something observable / measurable

-awesome, savage, beautiful

-place to test himself -- get out of comfort zone

-experience in wilderness is cleansing

-the presence of nature not yet controlled by man is refreshing

nature is his inspiration to write

HANDS ON-direct experience with nature
MARSH
1801 - 1882

-born / raised in Woodstock VT

-educated connected family

-grandfather VT governer, father district attourney - member of congress

-college at dartmouth

-became lawyer - then politics

-worked for us gov't in turkey
-became US embassador in Italy
-traveled thru Mediterranean and Middle East (long history of human habitation)

"MAN AND NATURE"
-points out (-) effects of humans on nature
what is nature?

MARSH
-a balanced, self-sustaining system

-inherently harmonious unless disturbed by humans

-ideal nature is forested
part / apart from nature?

MARSH
"he is not of her"

humans only disturb nature

if humans work in harmony with nature we can all survive
how should humans use nature?

MARSH
shouldn't use it faster than it replenishes itself

should try to restore what has been degraded
how should use be regulated?

MARSH
-no discussion of role of gov't

-individuals who know better should do the restoration
New England - contrast today and 1800s
today:
-rural New England mostly forests
-just enough agriculture for visual contrast
-80% forests


1850:
-20% forest
-everything else farmland
-industrialization and urbanization in S New England
-**Marsh present @ this time**
New England and Marsh's perspective
witnessing the effects of widespread forest clearing

influenced Marsh's perspective on humans and the environment
MUIR background
1838 - 1914

-born in Scotland
-family emigrated to Wisconsin

-was only allowed to read science (snuck romantic poetry)

-liked going into the woods

-university of Wisconsin
-fled to canada to avoid draft
-returned to factory job in indianapolis

-eye injury at work catalyzed aspirations for world travel

-1868 arrives in san francisco
--leaves for Yosemite

-yosemite is most divine of all earthly places -- the lord's mountain house
--lived in yosemite
-herded sheep
-ran sawmill (downed trees)
-explored area

-RELIGIOUS / ARTISTIC / SCIENTIFIC perspectives of nature
Muir's scientific perspective
-debate over formation of Yosemite Valley

-leading theory : cataclysm
-MUir's theory: slow moving glacier

-looked for evidence while hiking
-placed markers on glacier
-documented movement
-wrote "Yosemite's Glaciers"

-Johnson comes from E coast to see yosemite
-Muir and him see grazing / logging / mining in Tuolumne
--team up to protect area as Nat'l Park
what is nature?

MUIR
history

beauty

adventure

SALVATION

innocence

inspiration for poetry
part / apart from nature?

MUIR
feels connection thru direct physical experience
how should humans use it?

MUIR
preserve
&
observe

-especially sacred places like yosemite
how should uses be regulated

MUIR
**FEDERAL PROTECTION**
*wilderness as is and once tamed would remain limitless for our needs*
LETTERS
*preferred thinking, writing, and talking to experiencing*
EMERSON
*examined landscape close to him*
EMERSON
*center of his world was MAN*
EMERSON
*nature is more significant for its mental , rather than physical challenges*
EMERSON
*first to describe the correspondances between man, nature, and god*
EMERSON
*nature is the most ancient religion*
EMERSON
*nature is the city of god*

*nature is everywhere*
EMERSON
*prescribes a model lifestyle
in which the individual can explore a RELATIONSHIP with the natural world*
THOREAU
*lived off the land*
THOREAU
*scrutinized AND philosophized*
THOREAU
transcendentalism and emerson
the literary philosophical movement.

the existence of an ideal spiritual reality that transcends observation / scientific information

spiritual reality is knowable thru intuition - impression
*focuses on science - travel - survival - **eyes turned outward**
LEWIS / CLARK
**eyes turned inward** man's philosophic relationship to nature is contemplative*
EMERSON & THOREAU
*man was made to be free*
THOREAU
*american living with meaningless round of dull work and noisy recreation is dreadful*
THOREAU
*the world of thought is more natural than that of observed objects*
THOREAU
*too much information can be useless*
THOREAU
*what is it to be born free and equal, and not to live?*
THOREAU
*live outdoors, live simply*

*material success is worse than failure*
THOREAU
*nature + spirit free us*

*must look inward and outward to appreciate nature*
EMERSON
"eco-criticism"
look at literature from eco point of view

-political correctness spread to the enviro
bradford saw wild
"wild place - un christian - threatening

when adam and eve bit the bapple nature turned ferocious (wild)
-now gap between humans and nature
Mortan
nature can restore us to paradise

nature ISN"T fallen
*institutional religion clouds spirituality*
EMERSON
*capitalize Nature*
THOREAU
EMERSON
MUIR
thoreau refers to civilization
not capitalized

civil -- we're supposed to act a certain way
*nature first - man second*
THOREAU
*nature is everchanging*
*you see the design of every living thing in every other living thing*
EMERSON
*people identify with what they do, not who they are -- 'i'm a plumber' - not 'i plumb'*
THOREAU
thoreau sees footprint--- interpretation
human impact

we presume man's presence everywhere
-hard to imagine place wo humans

-"and we have not yet seen nature in its pure form"
transcendentalism
reality will be discovered by the processes of thought

intuity and spiritual is greater than the empirical (observed)
thoreau v lewis / clark

similarity
observed and recorded information about nature
thoreau v lewis / clark

difference
LEWIS / CLARK:
-humans > nature
--something almost as beautiful as a human?
-no spiritual aspect
-doing a job
-reads like a field book
-explored scientifically

THOREAU:
-nature > humans
-spiritual
-personal discovery
-poetic quality
DESCARTES (enlightenment thinker)

relevance to european attitude
CONSCIOUSNESS seperates us

we are superior
LOCKE (enlightenment thinker)

relevance to european attitude
land is a commodity

private property

we can OWN nature
LINNAEOUS (enlightenment thinker)

relevance to european attitude
classified / categorized nature

we can compartmentalize nature

we have dominion over nature

we can tame nature / conquer nature
Bradford & Mortan's attitudes prevalent in Letters
-letters saw wilderness as dangerous place

-opportunity / aesthetics / fear

-goes back and forth -- different attitudes toward
--NATURE (can be orderly, beautiful)
--WILDERNESS (savage)
*consciousness sets us apart from nature, though we try to seek unity with nature*
KATES
enlightenment thinkers explored...
the disruption between humans and nature
only time lewis / clark describe nature as beautiful
thundering falls
transcendentalism from rec.
reflected dissatisfaction w unitarian church

both men and women

iterative (repetition)
-ppl willing to accept they were understanding themselves, nature and the divine better thru conversation

-influenced by British Romantic movement
Muir & Emerson

similarities
both talked about god

salvation

the divine

desire for connection

very pure beleif in god