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28 Cards in this Set

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semi-subsistence/barter economy
Applies to most western/backcountry/northern farmers. Farmed smaller plots with the only goal to feed their own families. Had very little interest in paper $ because they lived apart (either prohibitively expensive or impossible to transport) from large markets, traded produce and goods in return for other goods. Stagnant economy.
commercial/market economy
Applies to settlements near waterways or well-constructed roadways where manufacturers and farmers could produce enough to make it worthwhile to invest a little money in transportation (transportation easier for these people esp. in coastal places). Money and credit vital to this economy because transactions happened quickly. Bought what foodish goods they needed to live. Future success needed progressive market economy.
President George Washington 1788-1796
Unopposed candidate b/c only person known well enough by nation, already emerged as a figurehead of the revolution. Favored staying neutral in politics and foreign affairs, but sucked into Hamilton’s plans for the economic future that alienated a portion of the population, mainly Republicans. Stepped down after 2 terms because of all of the negative press.
presidential cabinet
Originally a group of qualified advisors then established into regular office of four departments: Treasury, War, State, and Attorney General. Heads of which appointed by executive with consent of Senate.
Judiciary Act 1789
Outlined the judiciary system. Supreme court—6 members, 1 Chief Justice, 13 federal district courts (for each state), 3 circuit courts of appeal. Right to assess state court’s decisions and specify cases meant for Supreme.
Bill of Rights 1791
Created by Madison to revert focus from creating harmful limits to the government’s powers (like taxation) in order to protect rights to a document asserting the rights and liberties that the government must protect. So the legislation was forced to stick to protecting those rights/liberties and the limiting powers ordeal could be avoided because if taxation was included, than that must mean it is in accordance w/ the Bill of Rights. Included—freedom of speech, press, religion; right to petition, assemble, bear arms, trial by jury..
Alexander Hamilton, Scty of Treasury
Didn’t want to stay in obscurity so took job seriously. Thought that it was best interest to establish credit by giving wealthy and creditors interests in government. Wanted to boost the US economically and pay back debts that would increase the govt’s borrowing power. Gov’t Active in economy.
Hamilton’s Report on Public Credit 1790
$52 million owed to feds, $25 million in war debts
seat of U.S. capital deal
Jefferson and Madison (Virginia) said they would support Hamilton’s funding proposal (above) if the nation’s capitol would move in 10 years from Philadelphia to a permanent seat in the south-between VI and MD on the Potomac river—DC.
Hamilton vs. Jefferson
Hamilton—implied powers of Constitution with loose construction to infer that government can do more than only what the constitution says in black and white so need to dig deeper, Bank would regulate money and be able to pay bills and keep deposits so plus for forward economy, did not want aristocracy but catered to wealthy to encourage credit, created “class of citizens w/ wealth derived from gov’t” aka speculators w/ stock.
Hamilton’s Report on a National Bank 1891*
Representative value of gold to paper notes, loan power, place to store all government finances, place to encourage people with money to invest in, easier for gov’t to get money when needed, beneficial to individual b/c money he isn’t using can be used by another while he gets profits.
Hamilton’s Report on Manufacturers 1791*
agriculture and commerce were not a sufficient ground for the economy, those best suited and skilled for work will succeed, gov’t can use its influence to help economy, machinery makes work more efficient, employment for unskilled people in running machines
strict vs. loose constructionism
Strict—All the powers of the govt are stated specifically in the Constitution and, for the good of the nation and the rights of its citizens, the govt should not assume any other powers that those written in clear text.
doctrine of implied powers/”elastic clause”
‘Congress permitted to make all laws “necessary and proper” to get on with its business’ meaning that the govt is allowed to create rules that apply to a situation not considered in the original.
Battle of Fallen Timbers/ Treaty of Greenville 1794-5
Miami Confederacy opposed US and did not willingly give up territory west of Apps. Washington assembled 2000 troops to go with Wayne to force acquiescence. Battle of Fallen Timbers won the Treaty of Greenville’s southern 2/3 between Lake Erie and Ohio River. Threat pushed back so opened to settlement.
Whiskey Rebellion
Excise tax passed 1791 by Congress. (1794)Farmers whose meager income depended greatly on selling their home-distilled whiskeys were finally made aware of large taxes they had not paid to the government and did not appreciate the 25% tax on whiskey implemented by Hamilton’s new policies. In Pennsylvania, Governor Neville’s house burned by mob and various collectors publicly humiliated. Gathered to march on houses but was a bluff, granted a bluff that made they discontent apparent.
Pinckney’s Treaty 1796
With Spain makes 31st parallel as southern border of US, free navigation of Mississippi and ability to drop off cargo in New Orleans crucial to western US’s commerce. Helped ease tensions, cuts off Spain’s attempts at choking.
Washington’s Neutrality Act 1794
Washington decided for the nation that it would stay neutral in the war between France and England by not shipping war supplies to either country. Had a hard time when both countries started to accost American ships and harass the crews, but were not strong enough to confront either power.
Jay’s Treaty 1795
Sent to England to negotiate opening trade in West Indies to Americans and to evacuate settlements inside the US still occupied after the revolution. Only capable of the second.
Federalists vs. Republicans
Federalists (Hamilton and Adams, Washington)—Strong: New England and commercial centers/coastal towns with strong merchant and upper class, tradition of hierarchy and order from GB’s influence, South Carolina’s upper class. Did not appreciate excess of democracy a.k.a. thought that educated people should be responsible for voting. Believed that govt should be active in promoting the economic progress of the nation therefore increasing the nations wellbeing. Flexible interpretation important.
Citizen Genet Affair*
“1793, "Citizen" Edmond Charles Genet (1763-1834), a French minister [France’s delegate to the US], passed out letters authorizing Americans to attack British commercial vessels and Spanish New Orleans. Washington regarded these actions as a clear violation of American neutrality and demanded that France recall its minister. The Genet affair did have an important effect--it intensified party feeling [Republican supporters of France became more vocal about not liking Federalists’ pro-GB bias].”
Washington’s Farewell Address* 1796
Quotes from: “While choice and prudence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it.”—why it’s ok for him to retire
President John Adams 1796-1800
Views increasingly dissimilar from Hamilton’s: opposed link with GB, no loyalty to wealthy, not gung-ho about commercial vision. Wanted to avoid war with France, but enlarged army & navy→ unofficial naval battles on Atlantic, Alien, Naturalization, Sedition acts to increase Federalist powers and protect Federalist politicians.
XYZ Affair
In 1797, Adams wanted to try to negotiate peace with France, but French foreign minister required a bribe to open negotiations. French officials in scandalous event referred to as X, Y, and Z. Popular American outcry against such backhanded practices. Americans dropped negotiations.
Quasi War 1797-1800
Navies of both countries raided and accosted each other’s ships and cargoes. Not an official war, but annoying and damaging.
Alien & Sedition Acts 1798
Alien—not really used, allowed president to deport foreigners suspected of treason.
Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions 1798
Meant to get people to unite with Republican policy and non-violently oppose federal overstepping of power. Written secretly by Madison and Jefferson—the papers had the potential to kill the new govt, but M and J were careful how they were to be perceived.
Election of 1800
United Republican party put up Jefferson for election against a disjointed Federalist candidate who represented a party that tried to bend public opinion to its will instead of molding it as it already was.