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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
revolutionary state constitutions
Contained a governor and a bicameral legislature, but dramatically decreased the amount of power given to the executive because of the fear of corruption, and strengthened the legislative branch’s power.
Articles of Confederation 1777
The first Constitution, giving the national government power to wage war, issue currency, deal with the Indians, and conduct diplomacy.
western land claims 1782
The various states fought for land in the west, which was the future of the colonies and its land was worth a lot of money. Some states some states had, according to their charter, control over lands in the west, which caused conflict with states that had no such claims. Maryland did not ratify the Articles of Confederation until all western land claims had been ceded.
Northwest Ordinances 1784, 1785, 1787
1784: divided territory into 10 states, which would become part of the Union as equals as soon as they had populations equal to that of any existing state.
“not worth a Continental”
Due to the fact that American currency, because of the war, decreased dramatically in value, and that many people were going deeper in debt, this phrase was coined.
Mary Wollstonecraft
Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women in 1792, which ‘called not only for laws to guarantee women civil and political equality but also for education reforms to ensure their social and economic equality.” She felt women should be able to go to school to learn trades and that women would be more valuable to society if they were able to support themselves.
republican motherhood
The view that women were upholders of private virtue, and “had an obligation to encourage republican virtue in their husbands and children.”
Judith Sargent Murray
Her view that women’s minds needed to be ‘cultivated’ in order to ‘encourage self-respect’ led to the spread of literacy among women.
Shays’s Rebellion 1786
In rebellion of defeated relief measures, 2,000 farmers from western Massachusetts “closed county courts to halt creditors from foreclosing on their farms and marched on the federal arsenal at Springfield.” The rebellion occurred because people felt it was the government’s duty to protect property and the government had failed at that duty.
Philadelphia Constitutional Convention 1787
Met to revise the Articles of Confederation to better govern and strengthen the Union.
Virginia Plan
Written by James Madison. It proposed a ‘central government with three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial.’ The Legislative branch would be made up of Congress and could veto any state legislation. The Legislature would be made of a lower and upper house, which would be voted by the people and ‘apportioned according to population.’
New Jersey Plan
‘Increased Congress’s power to tax and to regulate trade’ and gave one vote in Congress to each state.
Great Compromise
Combined the Virginia and New Jersey Plans. In the upper house of Congress, states would each have 2 representatives who would serve 6 years each elected by the people, and in the lower house of Congress, for every 30,000 people one representative would serve for 2 years.
Three-fifths compromise
In the calculation of population, a slave was considered 3/5 of a free person. This gave the larger states more of a vote in Congress, even though the members of Congress did not truthfully represent the amount of free men.
Electoral College
For each number of members in Congress a state has, that’s how many votes they have in the Electoral College. The Electoral College elects the president. It was put into place because those in the Electoral College would be more involved in the government and would learn more than regular citizens about the candidate.
separation of powers
Each branch of government was separate from each other and had its own duties and responsibilities.
ratification process
The Constitutional Convention created a four-step process for ratifying the Constitution. The first was to submit the Constitution to Congress. Next, Congress had to give the Constitution to state legislatures. Then, there had to be an election of delegates to state conventions in order to consider the Constitution. Finally, at least nine out of 13 states had to ratify the Constitution.
Felt that a central government would lead to a new aristocracy and the government would become separate from the interests of the common people.
Federalist Papers
Written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. Addressed Anti-Federalist fears and countered them by saying checks and balances would prevent corruption within the national government.
Bill of Rights
“An explicit statement of rights to prevent the freedoms of individuals and minorities from being violated by the federal government.” The Anti-Federalists insisted upon a Bill of Rights.
checks and balances*
A system that prevents one branch of government for gaining power over another branch by limiting each branch’s power and giving checks to other branches on its powers.
James Madison*
Wrote the Bill of Rights, Federalists Papers, and the New Jersey Plan.
“System of government in which power is divided between a central authority and constituent political units.”
constitutional government*
A type of government in which the basis for writing laws and the powers of the various branches of the government are formally written up in a document known as a constitution.