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26 Cards in this Set

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British-French 18th c. rivalry
Started in 1600s in Europe, when the English gained allies against the French for war, and followed suit in the colonies by gaining Indian allies. They fought over limited control of the Caribbean sugar trade, since it was under the monopoly of the Spanish, and since England seemed to have the upper hand, the French took control of many areas in America so the English had a hard time trading furs with the natives.
1754 Albany Plan of Union
The plan thought of by Benjamin Franklin for the colonies to band together, with representatives from each colony meeting with the members of the Iroquois League to protect them. This plan fell through, because the colonies wanted their own independence, and didn’t want to be ruled by an overpowering government.
Backcountry-seaboard conflict
Those living on the seaboard hated those who lived in the backcountry, because they believed they were uncivilized and violent. While this was partially true, most of those who moved to the backcountry did so because of the lack of room on the seaboard, and the expense at which property was there.
Scots-Irish
Scottish who regretted their immigration to Northern Ireland. Almost a quarter of a million of them came to the Americas to settle, mostly to New England.
Paxton Boys
They were Scots-Irish settlers in the backcountry who were upset with the Pennsylvania government for not protecting them on the frontier. They decided to march on Philadelphia, and on the way, they met some Indians, whom they killed out of previous anger. Once they reached the capital, Franklin intervened and convinced them to recede by promising better protection for them.
Regulators’ movements
Happened in both North and South Carolina. In South Carolina, the refusal to establish courts in the backcountry angered those living there, and they threatened to march on the capital. This scared the government to extend the court system. In North Carolina, those in the backcountry thought that the courts were corrupted, but instead of the outcome of South Carolina, the militia of North Carolina crushed the regulators, thus stopping the potential revolution.
Green Mountain Boys
New York tried to claim that the Green Mountain boys and Ethan Allen had bought land in New Hampshire previously. When the colony of New York tried to start to rule over Vermont, the Green Mountain boys led a rebellion so that they took control of the courts there, and as a result, implemented a judicial system in the Green Mountains.
Bound workers
Laborers who were not free and were bound by some type of contract. This category included apprentices, and indentured servants, as well as the African slaves. Although a small amount of slaves worked as assistants to craft workers or servants in rich homes, most were sold to southern plantations.
Negro Election Day
This was an annual festival, based on that of West Africa, where black men and women rode their masters’ horses and wore their clothes. They then elected “kings”, “governors” and “judges” for the African race, and held court to settle minor grievances among the whites. This happened in the northern seaports, and it gave a chance for the Africans to elect their own leaders.
Gang labor & task system
The task system was more effective than gang labor, because then, each slave had a task set out for them. This gave all of them more freedom within slavery. After they performed their task, then they were done for the rest of that day.
Stono Rebellion 1739
This was the largest slave rebellion of the eighteenth century. About 100 slaves marched towards Stono after having seized arms, and being led by Jemmy, a slave, killed some of their white neighbors before being caught and killed by the colony’s militia.
Enlightenment
A period in the eighteenth century where science flourished, and reason triumphed over religion. These ideas were originally brought up in the reformation, because of the challenge posed to tradition. Although this movement was mostly present in Europe, it had its influences in the colonies as well.
Deism*
The belief that there was God to create the world, but after that, He did not interfere with nature or it’s governing. Deists did not believe in miracles, or the Christian teachings of the trinity and Jesus, and are now known as Unitarian.
Benjamin Franklin
A strong figure in the Enlightenment in America. He made many important scientific discoveries, such as the invention of the lightning rod and the ideas behind air currents. As well as this, he also played a major role in the politics of the colony of Pennsylvania.
Rational Christianity
This referred to the Christianity of the elite during the Enlightenment, which dealt with both the Christian traditions and reason. Their God, which was extremely dissimilar to the Calvinist God, offered universal salvation, and His greatest gift was that of reason.
The Great Awakening
A revival in the Calvinist ideas, roughly between 1730 and 1750 in the colonies. This led many of the citizens of the colonies to a new religion, where they believed in the “new birth” for each individual, and the colonies as a whole became much more religious.
Jonathan Edwards
A preacher during The Great Awakening, whose message included both the beauty of God’s grace, and the terror of hell. The latter was especially present in his famous sermon, “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”.
George Whitefield
A traveling minister who shook the colonies in 1737. His sermons were extremely inspiring to all who listened, because of his melodramatic interpretation and his ability to seduce his audiences with the ideas of both the hope of heaven and the horror of hell.
Old lights vs. new lights
Old lights were those who followed the old ways of Christianity and those traditions, where as in the new lights were those who followed the leaders of the Great Awakening.
Enthusiasm*
A term used to describe the feelings of the Great Awakening. This was usually used in conjunction with the preachers of the time, whose enthusiasm showed through all of their enticing sermons.
Consumer revolution
In the eighteenth century, the English were producing fine goods like hats, ceramics, glassware, carpets and furniture. These were not only in high demand in Europe, but in the colonies as well. A successful trade began, and between 1750 and 1773, the consumption in the colonies of these goods raised by 120%. Everyone, not only the rich, indulged in these things, though the amount of them differed depending on the social class of the families.
Balanced/mixed English constitution
This was supposed to give power to all of those in the country, from the monarch, to the aristocracy, to the common people. But, once the government’s corruption started to get out of hand, more power was given to the higher classes, where the lower classes’ power diminished.
Bicameral legislature
System of government implemented in almost all of the colonies in America. There was a royal governor, and then bicameral legislature, meaning there were two representative groups; one made up of the gentry, and one of the common people. This helped to give power to everyone in the colony, making it a more egalitarian society.
Benign neglect
This was the term designated for England’s treatment of the colonies. This was very beneficial for the colonies, because they had a lot of freedom in their own self-governing.
Lt. George Washington
A Lieutenant of English descent, he led a battle against the French in the Pennsylvania backcountry in which he was forced to surrender. As a result, he felt he had no future as a soldier.
Seven Years’ War
A war between the English and the French in the New World, starting in 1755. This was for ultimate control of America, and the areas unsettled by either country.