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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Members of the Society of Jesus. These religious Christians tried to convert the Indians in the French colonies of the New World. They believed that they could convert those in Canada, but both the Indians, and the other Frenchmen laughed at them.
Coureurs de bois
The French traders, who traded with the native Indians of the area.
Presbyterians or Congregationalists who emigrated from England because of religious persecution. They were Calvinists, and they colonized all of New England.
The Calvinist idea that God has a plan for everyone, and He knows who will have salvation and who will not. This gave them a reason to live, and a purpose for their life in serving God.
John Calvin
The lead reformer of the Protestant church, and the man’s whose ideas was the basis of the Puritan beliefs.
Church of England
Also known as the Anglican church. Henry VIII began this church, when he broke away from the Catholic church because of a disagreement with the pope.
A sect of the Puritan community who were specifically persecuted by the English church. While still in England, they had to meet in secret groups to worship, but they decided to relocate to the New World, specifically New England to escape persecution.
Believed that there should be no authoritative figure, and that each congregation should be independent in their worship.
Although they are Calvinists like the Congregationalists, they believe that a hierarchy of religious clergy should rule the ministers and laypeople.
The Separatists who came over in 1620 to Plymouth.
Mayflower Compact
A treaty written that said that the governor, as well as his assistants, was to be elected by the male population of Plymouth. This showed that it was not a royal colony, and that they governed themselves.
William Bradford
One of the leaders of the Pilgrims who settled in Plymouth in New England.
Massachusetts Bay Company/Colony
Made by Congregationalists in 1629. These Puritans did this so that they could make a better society in the Massachusetts colony than any other in the world.
John Winthrop
The first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He was a lawyer, and had much land and was part of the gentry in England. He wanted his colony to set a positive example for the rest of the world.
“city on a hill”
What John Winthrop wanted the Bay Colony to aspire to. This means that other societies would look up to them, and admire their society.
General Court
A group made up of freemen, the Governor and his assistants, which made up the laws, levied taxes and established the courts of the colony. This later became a representative body, since the population influx prevented the whole free population from attending.
The Great Migration
The migration from England to New England after the time of the English Civil War. The settlers all had a common problem with the current political situation in England, and wanted a society that was religiously based on the Bible.
New England
Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire.
Puritan Conversion
To convert to the Congregational churches of New England, one had to prove his complete turn around to God and his teachings, and that he had been spiritually reborn. They had to convince not only the members of their parish, but also the minister as well.
Halfway Covenant
In Congregational churches, the adults who wanted to convert had to prove their new reborn selves by recounting an act of God that helped them come to their religion. The halfway covenant extended their conversion down to their children, making it so that they wouldn’t have to go through the same thing as their parents did to be inducted into the church. This was never accepted by all of the Congregationalist churches, though some did practice it.
Separation of church & state
Although not completely abolished, the New Englanders came the farthest in this, since the church owned no land, and the ministers were not government officials as well.
Town meetings
The form of local democracy in Puritan towns. The white adult males met together regularly, and voted on important issues in the town, as well as for town officials. There had to be a consensus for anything to be passed.
Company towns
These towns only existed to produce commodities that the other members of the colony could not produce because of their location. These things that were produced were traded for other necessary things around the world. Most of the population was single men who were unruly, and their local governments lacked the strength of most towns.
A radical idea that goes against the ideas of the Bible or anything else sacred in religion. This became a problem in the Puritan societies, and the heretics were all sent to Rhode Island.
Roger Williams
The founder of Rhode Island, he was a Separatist who wanted a complete break from the Church of England. Later, he encouraged religious toleration, and by making remarks about Massachusetts and the King, was threatened to be deported. Before this could happen, he fled the colony and founded Providence, the capital of Rhode Island.
Anne Hutchinson
A wife of a wealthy merchant, she came to Boston as Puritan, but had differences in some religious views. She believed that it didn’t matter what a person’s outward actions were, because God could see only their soul, and not their good works. This became an ongoing attack on the members of the clergy, and as a result, she was expelled from the colony, and fled to Rhode Island, later moving to Long Island.
An idea that was thought to be only one of a heretic. Anne Hutchinson believed this, that a soul’s inward state cannot be portrayed by one’s outward appearance and good deeds.
Society of Friends/Quakers
A radical sect who broke off from the Church of England. They believed in the “light within”, which established the spiritual truth in each individual.
Salem Witchcraft Trials 1692
Most of the people who were tried or convicted of witchcraft were middle-aged women who had been believed to be heretics or were sexually promiscuous. By saying they had made a pact with Satan, the societies of New England were able to persecute women with strong opinions without doing it outright.
King Philip’s War 1676
King Philip, also known as Metacomet, was the leader of the Wampanoag Indians of Plymouth, who were the only tribe in the area left who resisted the English. Although he tried to get help from the other tribes around Plymouth, they did not want to put their trading with the Puritans in jeopardy so they didn’t help. Almost 20,000 people in total died from this war.
New Netherlands
Now known as New York, it was settled by the Dutch West India Company in 1624. There was great diversity in the colony, with people from Dutch, Belgian, French, English, Portuguese, Swedish, Finnish and African descent. This diversity also came with that of religion, so the colony was very different than the New England colonies.
New York
The New Netherlands that had been granted to the Duke of York by the King of England, Charles II. The colony, now under English control, still had ethnic and religious tensions.
League of Iroquois
A joined group of Indian tribes, the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora tribes, who worked as a unit to wipe out the Huron population to get their hunting grounds. This was important, because their trade with the English depended on the trade of furs, and the animal population in their area was dying out.
Inner Light
The Quakers, with their ideas of equality between all peoples, believed that every man and woman had the “inner light”, meaning that their soul was filled with God. This idea was one of the reasons that the Quakers were persecuted in England.
William Penn
A close friend of Charles II, he was a leader in the Quaker society. Charles II gave him all of the land between New Jersey and Maryland in 1681, which showed both his trust in his friend, and his desire to rid England of the Quakers.
Although Pennsylvania was more diverse than the New England colonies, it was a haven for all Quakers in the colonies. The settlement was structured in scattered farmsteads, so that the county was more important than the individual town. Also, Indian attacks were never a problem because of the Quakers’ pacifism, and William Penn’s decision to buy the Indian’s land from them before selling it to the white settlers.
Dominion of New England
A combination of Connecticut, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, New York and New Jersey into one colony under royal control. James II did this so that the colonies of the New World would have a connection with their motherland, and would have to follow their rules. When the Glorious Revolution took place in England, the militia of Boston expelled the royally appointed governor, Andros, and sent him back to England, thus ending the Dominion of New England.
Leisler’s Rebellion
In New York, the militia, having declared their utmost loyalty to the new king and queen William and Mary, took siege on the Dominion’s lieutenant governor and replaced him with Jacob Leisler, a merchant from Germany. Though this pleased the lesser people of the area, the gentry thought that he threatened their power, and had him and his son-in-law arrested and convicted of treason once royal rule had been reinstated.
Board of Trade
A group created by the Parliament of England, which further enforced the Navigation acts and prosecuted those who disobeyed them. This decreased the smuggling cases in New England, which profited both the colonies and England itself.
Glorious Revolution
A revolution between those in favor of Parliament’s role in government, and those who wanted the King to have closer to absolute power. Ultimately, Parliament remained, and was the leader in ruling the government of England.