Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
President Abraham Lincoln 1860-1865
Gained recognition through debates with Douglass, elected with solely northern sectional support, Union president through civil war, issued Emancipation Proclamation, suspended habeas corpus, saw that the nation could not exist partially slave or free, assassinated in second term.
President Jefferson Davis, CSA, 1861-1865
Found that he had to expand/strengthen the central gov’t in war time, stubbornly stood against the union even when his armies were mostly defeated, tried to enlist British support by promising to abolish slavery-against ideology of southern position in the war.
Border states
Union needed their support as accesses to south and to protect DC, swayed into staying with the union b/c union allowed them to keep slavery, also when union rescued neutral Kentucky from confederate’s invasion. MD, MO, KY
West Virginia, 1863
Western portion of Virginia few slaves there, did not have use for slavery and didn’t support confederate drive to protect it, agreed to gradual emancipation program and accepted into Union.
Battle of Bull Run 1861
First major battle (also called Manassas), confederates weakened and union forces thought they had won the war but reinforcements arrived and union eventually retreated in disorderly mob to DC. Disillusioned people: war would be long, involve large battles of huge numbers, lots of casualties, and dependence on supplies and endurance.
General George McClellan
34-yr-old West Point grad appointed to command Army of Potomac, after 8months of training/drilling forces, still had no secure plans to go fight. Caution->defensive stance, after Antietam, allowed lee’s army to escape and Lincoln took away his command.
Anaconda Plan*
"Blockade of Southern ports, a strong thrust down the Mississippi Valley with a large force, and the establishment of a line of strong Federal positions there would isolate the disorganized Confederate nation and bring it to terms." From
Admiral David Farragut
Officer led attacks on New Orleans and Memphis to gain control of the South’s major port cities. Victory at Mobile Bay aided election of Lincoln b/c showed how union’s war efforts were succeeding.
General Ulysses S. Grant
Able to look at the war in national perspective: hard fighting and constant motion, control of rivers and railroads, determination. Cool under battle-stress. Later appointed commander of all Union forces.
General Robert E. Lee
Risk-taking leader, south’s most important general in defending and winning a lot of key fights. Made a mistake by sending 14,000 directly into union fire. Decided on strategy of attrition to inflict suffering on north w/ minimal damage to his own forces, had to flee from Richmond and surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse April 9, 1865.
Crittenden Resolution
Stated that sole reason for Union going to war was to preserve the Union, not emancipation (would scare off border states and was not a goal for many northerners).
Emancipation Proclamation 1862-1863
Act of war freeing all slaves in the south/confederacy but not in the border states or in areas of the confederacy already under union control. Meant to weaken the south and promote slave uprisings to undercut white supply efforts etc. Bolstered European favor of Union, Democrats made it an issue saying that Republicans were pro-black.
Slavery crumbled without white male overseers in former abundance, took advantage of weakness and openly revolted in some places before union forces arrived. ½ million (1/7 population of slaves) escaped to Union but often ended up in refugee or contraband camps that had near-slavery conditions. Some worked for army or on plantations for low wages.
Black soldiers
Former slaves escaped to the north and other free blacks often joined the war effort to show citizenship/loyalty. Slowly gained trust and notability. Made up 10% of union forces. 1864 congress granted them equal pay as whites.
Confederate draft 1862
Generated complaints among the poorer population who were not included in the exemption whites owning 20-15 or more slaves were (1 man on each plantation excluded from the draft to keep control of slave population). Poor people complained that the rich were privileged unfairly because it was mainly a war for their livelihoods, not the poor’s.
Homestead Act 1862
Part of Republican platform to encourage development of the west and keep people from being trapped in factory wage slavery in cities. Granted 160 free acres to each person after working land for 5 years.
Morrill Land Grant College Act 1862
Part of Republican platform to promote economic prosperity through practical education. Some land sales’ profits went to fund public colleges, especially crucial in the west. (ex Ohio State)
suspension of habeas corpus
Lincoln suspended the constitutional right in the first few months of the war in order to keep southern-sympathizers and anti-war democrats from causing trouble and weakening morale. The suspension makes it possible to detain people without telling them why or giving them due process. Extended it farther than Davis-all over the north, did so without consulting Congress.
Extreme peace Democrats who opposed the war, Republicans labeled them as venomous snakes b/c they were not willing to fight to keep the Union.
Ex parte Milligan 1866
As a response to having citizens tried by military courts by one of Lincoln’s decisions during the war, the Supreme Court ruled in this case that no citizen could be legally tried in a military court unless regular courts were closed.
Rifle technology
Accuracy up to 400 (5 times better than musket) yards-more casualties-spin, could be used in watery conditions b/c had a cap. Battles could be fought from greater distances, frontal charges no longer as dependable, defensive position preferable.
Battle of Gettysburg 1863
Lee, after several days of not being able to break the Union lines, made a rash decision to send 14,000 men straight into the union line. The majority died or were wounded. Turned the tide in Union’s favor and helped the Republican cause keep respectability/hope.
Battle of Vicksburg 1863
Grant wanted to capture the south’s Mississippi stronghold to gain further control of the river (in order to split the south in 2). Left his supply line behind to get to the city faster, surrendered 4th of July, then went on to get Port Hudson to totally control the Mississippi.
Election of 1864
Republican: Lincoln nominated, platform included an abolition amendment, “Union party”
13th Amendment
Passed Jan 31, 1864, and ratified by enough states by the end of that year to become part of the constitution. Freed all slaves w/out compensation.
Sherman’s March to the Sea 1864
Instructed by Grant to do as much damage as possible while cutting off Lee’s supplies to Richmond. From Atlanta to Savannah caused 100 million in damage, only 20 was necessary to feed his troops. Total war felt by just about everybody in the south at this point.
Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse, VA 1865
Fleeing from Petersburg and Richmond, Lee’s forces met Grant’s in Appomattox, Virginia, and Lee surrendered to Grant at the courthouse on April 9th. Both were respectful, and this basically spelt out the end of the war.
Lincoln assassinated 1865
Aged by war, just weeks after hearing about the surrender at Appomattox, Lincoln went to see a show and was shot by a southern sympathizer, John Booth.
New York City Draft Riots 1863
Rioters, mostly Irish immigrants, hated the special treatment of the wealthy in the draft process. Took 4 days and 105 lives to settle. Most violent in American history thus far.
Monitor vs. Merrimac
First time ships had been outfitted with steel plates to protect them from shelling. Stalemate, scuttled a little later. Showed how useful armored ships could be.