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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
John Deere
Invented a sharp-cutting steel plow in 1837; into order to slice the densely tangled roots of prairie grass; permitted settlement on the prairie
Cyrus McCormick
Improved a mechanical reaper; harvested 14 times more wheat with the same amount of labor; wheat became a more profitable crop to grow and sell
Isaac Singer
Used interchangeable parts to manufacture sewing machines-mass-production; permitted the ready-made clothing industry-specialization (each workers performs the same task repeatedly)
Irish immigration
Came to America for opportunity since the conditions were deteriorating in Ireland (Irish Potato Famine in 1845); 1/3 of the population immigrated to the United States; poorer than most immigrant groups; majority were Catholic; lived in cities-were unskilled workers, factory and manual labor jobs in cities suited them best
German immigration
Came to America for opportunity and freedom since their living conditions in Germany were deteriorating (small farmers lost land, skilled workers could not compete with industrialization, political and social oppression); many German immigrants were able to buy a farm or start a business in America; immigrated to America in families-created their own communities with social, religious, and cultural organization to maintain their German language and customs
President Franklin Pierce 1852-1856
The youngest present to date in 1852; Democrat-supporter of the “Young America” movement
Young America
Democratic movement which eagerly expected the expansion of democracy worldwide and the annexation of additional territory to the United States; should not focus on slavery since the United States can be developing new resources
Gadsden Purchase 1853
The United States acquired 45,000 square miles of Mexican desert; contained the most practical route for a transcontinental route based in the south
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
Promoted by Stephen A. Douglas in order for the transcontinental railroad to be based in Chicago; repealed the Missouri Compromise Line in order to gain the Southern votes to organize the remaining territory from the Louisiana Purchase for the railroad-status of slavery determined by popular sovereignty (questions about what time during the process to statehood); passed despite close vote along sectional lines (upset Northern Democrats, conscience Whigs, and Free Soilers-“Slave Power”, giving slaveholders land dedicated to freedom, expansion of slavery)
Know Nothing Party/ American Party 1854-1856
A secret nativist organization turned political party; “Americans should rule America”-rid America of immigrant influence (rising crime and chaos in urban areas, heavy drinking, illegal voting, Catholicism); promoted a longer naturalization period and got rid of politicians elected with Catholic and foreign votes; promising national future, but collapsed-sectional tensions (tried to entice Southern voters with a proslavery platform while alienating their Northern support)
Belief that America should only be for and be ruled by Americans; did not want any immigrants that would jeopardize the country created for protestant whites
Republican Party 1854
Political party; anti-slavery-did not attempt to appease Southern voters; would elect a president with support of all the free states (majority of electoral votes)
Bleeding Kansas 1854-1858
Referendum on slavery-would slavery expand across the continent; settlement of Kansas became a race between Northerners and Southerners-whichever region had a greater population in Kansas would sway the slavery issue their way; two separate state governments formed, one pro-slavery and one anti-slavery, both claiming to be the legitimate government of Kansas-polarized situation which led to violence
Sumner-Brooks Affair 1856
Charles Sumner (R-MA) gave a speech, “The Crime against Kansas”, which was extremely anti-slavery and contained remarks that insulted South Carolina and one of its senators, Preston S. Brooks; Brooks retaliated by beating Sumner with a cane until he collapsed unconscious; made the claims of “Bleeding Kansas” and the Slave Power credible
The Slave Power
The power of the slave states to expand the influence of slavery across the nation, especially in the territories
John Brown/ Pottawatomie Massacre 1856*
Example of extreme brutal violence in Kansas; John Brown and supporters massacred innocent civilians (only crime was that they were Southerners-did not own slaves nor had any connection to Lawrence raid)
Election of 1856
Democratic Party: James Buchanan, American Party: Millard Fillmore, Republican Party: John C. Frémont; Republicans only tried to appeal to Northerners-against slavery (moral opposition-slavery inconsistent with ideals of the Republic and Christianity), for free labor (widespread opportunity and economic independence for white Americans), against Catholicism and for temperance (tried to appeal to former Know-Nothings), and against the Slave Power (tried to destroy Northern liberty, minority ruling the government, not republican); Democrats won with Republicans not too far behind (had Frémont carried more than 11 of the 16 free states, he would have been elected-only anti-slavery party based entirely in the North as a formidable threat to acquire the presidency)
President James Buchanan 1856-1860
Democrat; experienced politician (served in Congress, in the Cabinet and in the foreign service); took Southern position-tactless to Northern Democrats
Dred Scott Decision 1856
7 to 2 ruling that Dred Scott should remain a slave; African-Americans, no matter how long they have lived in a free state or territory, were not free-were inferior to whites so they did not have rights guaranteed to whites; Missouri Compromise Line was unconstitutional-Congress had no power to ban slavery from any territory; implicated that popular sovereignty was unconstitutional-if slavery was permitted in all territories, how could the territorial legislatures protect their ruling on slavery (especially in free territories)
Panic of 1857
Not as severe as previous panics; had more physiological effects since the South was virtually unaffected
Cotton is King
Price still high during Panic of 1857; Southerner could conceive creating their own independent Southern nation-cotton being the basis of their economy; cotton sustained international economy
Lecompton Constitution 1857
Made slavery legal; voters could only elect the addition of new slaves into the new state of Kansas-could not vote against the constitution or slavery; was approved because free-staters boycotted the election; condemned by Stephen A. Douglas as a fraud as well as the House of Representatives with its Northern majority; decisively defeated when returned for another vote-Kansas would enter the Union as a free state when it had the necessary population
Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858
Series of seven debates during their senatorial campaigns on the issue of slavery between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas; both were [mostly] anti-slavery, so their debates focused on their policies toward slavery (Lincoln: country could not remain divided and will have to be entirely free or entirely slave, Douglas: country could survive as half free and half slave as long as territories were left alone to govern their own affairs
Black Republicans
Name given by Southerners to Republicans-since Republicans were anti-slavery and wanted to end the institution, they were viewed by Southerners as favoring blacks
Freeport Doctrine
Slave owners would never bring their slaves into an area where slavery is not legally protected-slavery never established and therefore, never recognized as legal; contradicted the Dred Scott Decision-slaves would be considered free in free areas
John Brown’s Harper’s Ferry Raid 1859
Attempted to start a slave rebellion in the South; seized unguarded federal armory at Harper’s Ferry in Virginia but did not have much slave support (not many slaves in the area); John Brown and followers were captured and hanged for treason; weakened possibility of compromise within the United States
Election of 1860
Republican Party: Abraham Lincoln, Northern Democratic Party: Stephen A. Douglas, Southern Democratic Party: John C. Breckinridge, Constitutional Union Party: John Bell; Abraham Lincoln received less than 40% of popular vote and virtually no support from the South, but managed to receive more then the 153 electoral votes needed to become president; first time a candidate from a complete sectional party and who opposed to the expansion of slavery was elected by the people to the presidency
South Carolina secession 1860
First of the southern states to succeed from the Union in order to protect southern equality and liberty; motivated the rest of the deep southern states to succeed as well
Confederate States of America (CSA) 1860
Independent nation consisting of the seceded southern states of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas; elected Jefferson Davis as president; from to protect southern equality and liberty
Crittenden Compromise 1861
Proposed extending the Missouri Compromise Line to the Pacific Ocean in order to prohibit slavery north and to protect slavery south of it no matter what future land would be acquired; also proposed an “unamendable amendment” in which slavery could never be abolish in states where it already existed; failed-both Republicans and secessionists were unwilling to make successions for compromise
Lincoln’s Inauguration 1861
Against secession-“Union is perpetual”; reassured southerns that he would not infer with slavery in the states where slavery already existed to try to have them reject their succession
Fort Sumter surrenders 1861
First battle of the Civil War; South demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter or would open fire for the purpose of ridding the United States from the Confederacy (with the United States present, hurt Confederacy’s claim for independence); Confederacy was successful
Upper South secedes 1861
After Abraham Lincoln tried to suppress rebellion, Upper South seceded from the Union; compromise was impossible