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30 Cards in this Set

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Manifest Destiny
~ The belief of many Americans that it was their divine right to expand over North America, expand democracy, chare their economic and social systems, and integrate the Mexican peoples into Anglo-Saxon community.
Mexican borderlands
~Areas to the north in Texas, New Mexico, and California, that had developed free of outside interference; in California the land was mainly given over to cattle ranchers.
American emigration to Texas
~The Mexican gov. encouraged emigration by empresarios, or Americans that settled other Americans and their families in Texas. Most of those who settled in Texas came from the south, many of whom hoped to grow cotton there.
Republic of Texas
~Established by the Americans living in Texas, they broke away from the Mexican gov’t and started their own republic that had a constitution very similar to that of the United States.
Battle of the Alamo 1836
~The battle in San Antonia TX, where Santa Ana’s troops defeated and killed all 187 American defenders of the military garrison there, but at the cost of 1500 Mexican soldiers.
Sam Houston
~Leader of the Texan independence movement, he retreated north to find more American support; he returned, his ranks enlarged, defeated the Mexican army in 15 minutes, and captured Santa Ana. After independence was gained he became the first president of the republic.
Lone Star Republic 1836-1844
~After turning down America’s extended hand, the republic lived alone for years and attracted over 100,000 immigrants; though their independence was never formally recognized by Mexico, the citizens wished to join the United States.
Overland Trail
~The trails extending over he Mountains and into Oregon, was sued by many starting in 1841; the trip was hazardous, expensive, and took 6 months, but many families made the trip, often in caravans of wagons.
President John Tyler 1840-1844
~He became President after the death of president Harrison in 1840; he changed political parties many times, before being thrown out for his renegade views. Finally, in 1844 he put to the senate, a treaty he had secretly negotiated to bring Texas into the union.
Annexation of Texas 1845
~Texas entered in March of 1845 in the last days of Tyler’s presidency; after originally being overruled by the senate, it was finally accepted after the conflict of the Clay- Van Buren-Polk presidential election.
Oregon Compromise 1846
~By treaty with the British, Polk negotiated that the territory be divided along the 49th parallel, also gaining the Puget sound for the US.
President James A. Polk 1844-1848
~A somewhat dubious man, he had ambitions to greatly extend US boundaries; he succeeded in gaining lower Oregon territory from GB.
Mexican-American War 1846-1848
~When TX joined the union, Mexico stated its boundary was the Nueces river, though Americans had never lived south of that, Polk claimed it was the Rio Grande. After instigating battle, Polk blamed the hostilities on Mexico and lied to his country.
Whig opposition to “Mr. Polk’s War”
~The Whigs saw his war as an effort to extend slavery, but didn’t want to outright oppose it, so they passed the legislation supporting it, but protested his war at the same time but opposing any acquisition of Mexican territory.
Wilmot Proviso 1846
~His amendment barred slavery in any territory gained from Mexico, though it passed several times in the house, it was vetoed by the southern dominated senate.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848
~Still doing nothing on the issue of slavery, the treaty gave Mexican territories of N, and upper CA to the US in return for $18 million, making the US truly a continental country.
California Gold Rush 1849
~AN extremely unstable society, in CA , due to their likelihood to move around from camp to camp, the gold rush increased CA’s pop from 14,000 to 380,000, all after a single miller saw gold flecks in a stream.
Chinese immigration
~ About 45,000 Chinese immigrated to San Francisco, most to escape the economic distress of China for the prosperity of the west; many just wished for money to bring home to their families, though most were forced out of the mines and so set up businesses in San Francisco.
Mormons in Utah
~Based largely on community hierarchy and family structure, they group settled near the great salt lake, practiced polygamy, created great irrigation systems, and were able to live free of harassment.
Brigham Young
~The successor to J. Smith as leader of the Mormon church, he lacked the mystic spirit, but was a great organizer; he brought the group to Nevada and the great salt lake where they could live free of persecution and were they were under the jurisdiction of religious elders.
Popular sovereignty
~The process allowed the people of a territory to decide their status as either for or against slavery, instead of congress.
John C. Calhoun in 1840s
~Taking the extreme southern position, he advocated that state residents should decide where to support slavery or not, and that the decision would be part of the individual state constitution.
President Zachary Taylor 1848-1850
~A Whig candidate, General Tyler from LA was elected, even though he had taken no place on any political issues, even though he was a slaveholder.
Free Soil Party
~The platform focused on the dangers of ending slavery rather then slavery itself; they nominated Van Buren for the presidency.
Compromise of 1850
~IN an attempt to end conflict and settle the union the compromise stated that CA would enter as free, Nm and Utah enter under Popular sovereignty, the slave trade be abolished in Dc, and laws be passed enabling slave holders to reclaim runaways; after much debate, the bill was passed in 1850.
Henry Clay
~He wished his omnibus bill be submitted as a whole, which was sure to be vetoed, but he worked hard to line up necessary votes.
Stephen A. Douglas
~ He organized the bill so it would pass in different parts, allowing all to be passed, creating a temporary lull in conflict.
President Millard Fillmore 1850-1852
~The New president signed and passed the compromise of 1850 as the first acts of his term.
Fugitive Slave Law 1850
~The law, harsher then ever, denied any suspected runaway a trial by jury and required all citizens to assist in searches.
Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852
~ Her novel pointed out the indignities of slavery and how immoral it was; the novel received wide acclaim and was read by thousands.