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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Indies
~What the Europeans called the area including: China, Japan, the Spice Islands, Thailand and India. They knew of the great spices and riches that came from them, and wished to find a trade route by sea to avoid the Muslim controlled mid-east.
Prince Henry the Navigator
~Portuguese sailor who began many expeditions to W. Africa, and also helped many to learn new navigational techniques, and also founded a navigation school in Portugal.
Atlantic Islands
~Islands such as the Canaries, Madiera, and the Azores where the Portuguese grew sugar and brought in African slaves to grow/harvest it for them. They also exploited Natives and made them into slaves.
~Instrument the measures latitude, a new invention that helped ships find their location when far from land; invented by the Portuguese.
~ A lighter ship, better suited to Atlantic sailing, that was useful in sailing into the wind in violent seas, first used by the Portuguese.
~People of mixed race, who were often slaves.
Christopher Columbus
~ Led expedition financed by Ferdinand and Isabella to what he believed to be India, but what was in fact the Caribbean/ America (San lalvador, Hipanola, Cuba)
~The name for the Spanish achievement of ridding Spain of Muslims and Muslim influeneces, the Spanish crusade.
Amerigo Vespucci
~The Italian explorer falsely credited with discovering the Americas in 1503, a decade after Christopher Columbus.
Causes of European exploration & conquest
~There was competition for land and resources in Europe, a lack of work, a need for glory among attention seekers, a demand for gold for asian trade, and a need to convert as many as possible to Christianity.
~Ancient native civilization in Mexico ,rich in people and resources, that was wiped out by Spanish Conquistadors through work and disease.
Montezuma; Moctezuma
~King of the Aztecs who waged war against Cortez and the settlers, but eventually surrendered after the city was barricaded by the Spanish, and was killed by Cortez.
Hernando Cortez
~A Spanish conquistador, who conquered the Aztec civilization of Mexico, claiming it for spain, as he ruined the city and robbed it of its gold and people.
~Spanish explorers who conquered the native populations of the areas that they found in the Americas and the Caribbean.
Small pox; Indian epidemics
~Diseases that killed almost all of the native populations in the Americas, that were contracted from Europeans settlers. The native populations died because they had not natural anti-bodies with which to fight the diseases, as they had never before been exposed to them.
Columbian Exchange
~The exchange of livestock, agriculture, and disease between the Native Americans and the European settlers.
Spanish colonial bureaucracy
~Spanish government that controlled all Spanish territories in the Americas, all ruled by officials appointed by the Crown, who had only the Crown’s interests in mind.
~Spanish plantation in the Caribbean, South and Central America, where Native peoples were made to work, mass producing a certain good.
Bartolome de Las Casas
~Spanish monk who fought for the rights of the Native peoples who lived under the Spanish.
Black Legend
~The negative view or idea of the Spanish rule in Americas, where workers of color were ill-treated and over-worked.
Martin Luther
~The leader of protestant reformation, who introduced the idea that faith, was all that was required to make it to Heaven, going against the Catholic idea that both faith and good works were required for Heaven.
Priesthood of all believers
~The idea introduced by Luther, that each person is their own priest or connection to god, making the clergy obsolete.
John Calvin
~A protestant follower who created his own sect based on pre-destination. He believed that God selected a few pure beings for heaven, that you had no control over your fate, urging all his followers to follow doctrine and faith in case they were one of the few selected.
The sect of Christianity created by Martin Luther, that declared faith was the only requirement for heaven, and the only unerring source of God on earth was the bible, not the clergy.
The Elect
~The few people that god selected for salvation, as believed by followers of Calvinism.
~The idea that God has already selected a few pure beings for heaven, and that one has no control over their fate, meaning that all followers should follow doctrine and faith in case they were one of the few selected for salvation.
~The work of God’s Elect, that was a lifetime of Good deeds and good will towards others to fulfill their deastiny.
Holy Commonwealth
~In Geneva, Calvin created one, a city where the elect held power over all others, enforcing moralistic views and behavior.
Church of England
~The introduction of a form of false Protestantism into England, when King Henry VIII split with the Catholic church over the issue of divorce.
English Puritans
~ Followers of strict Calvinism in England, who were so named when they opposed Catholic influences in the English church.
Joint stock companies
~Small, privately owned companies where many people shared capital and used it to finance missions to the Americas.
Sir Walter Raleigh
~A sailor and soldier who was granted charter to settle a colony in America, by the Queen. He led the Roanoke colony before leaving for England to return with soldiers to fight violent Native Americans.
Roanoke Colonies
~Colony settled on Roanoke Island that disappeared mysteriously, leaving only a few homes and the message “CROATOAN”