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63 Cards in this Set

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Define Work.
Transforming energy from one form to another.
Define Energy.
Capacity to do work.
Define Power.
Amount of energy delivered over a given time.
What are the 2 States of Energy?
Kinetic (moving) & Potential (stored)
What are the 6 Types of Energy?
Chemical; Heat; Electrical; Mechanical; Light; Nuclear
What is the most common form of Energy?
Heat
Define Heat.
Energy transferred when bodies have different temperatures.
Define Temperature.
Indicator of Heat.
Define Fuel.
Material oxidized during combustion (Reducing Agent).
What physical state of fuel is the most dangerous and why?
Gas; Already in Ignitible State.
Define Fuel Load (Fire Load).
Total amount of fuel in given location multiplied by Heat of Combustion of materials present.
What determines Rate of Heat Transfer?
Temperature difference between bodies.
What is the lowest concentration of oxygen (at room temperature) that will support Combustion?
14%
Define Oxygen Enriched.
Concentration of more than 21%.
What are 2 key fuel related factors?
Physical State & Distribution (Surface to Mass Ratio) (Position-Vertical/Horizontal)
Define Pyrolysis.
Chemincal decomposition of substance through action of heat (Solid to a Gas).
Define Vaporization.
Transformation of liquid to gas.
What determines the Rate of Vaporization?
The substance nvolved & amount of heat applied.
Define Fire.
Rapid chemical reaction requiring fuel, O2, & heat that produces energy and products of combustion.
Name the type, color, shape, & extinguishing method for Class A Fire.
Ordinary, Green, Triangle, Extinguish by Cooling
Name the type, color, shape, & extinguishing method for Class B Fire.
Flammable Liquid; Red; Square; Extinguish by Smothering
Name the type, color, shape, & extinguishing method for Class C Fire.
Electrical; Blue; Circle; Extinguish by De-energizing
Name the type, color, shape, & extinguishing method for Class D Fire.
Combustible Metals; Yellow; Star; Extinguish w/ Special Agents
Define Flameover/Rollover.
Flames move through unburned gases (not actual surface).
Define Thermal Layering.
Tendency of gases to form layers according to temperature.
What are 2 other names for Thermal Layering?
Heat Stratification & Thermal Balance
What are Products of Combustion?
Light; Heat; Smoke
What causes most fire related deaths?
Smoke
Define Smoke.
Heated mix of air, gases, & particles.
What are the 3 most common hazardous substances found in Smoke?
Carbon Monoxide (CO); Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN); Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
What is the Fire Extinguishment Theory?
Extinguish by interrupting Fire Tetrahedron.
What are 4 ways to interrupt the Fire Tetrahedron?
Reduce Temperature; Remove Fuel; Exclude O2; Inhibit Chemical Reaction
Define Solubility.
Ability of substance to mix with water.
What is the difference between Polar Solvents and Hydrocarbons?
Polar Solvents mix with water & Hydrocarbons do not mix with water.
Give an example of a Polar Solvent & a Hydrocarbon.
Polar Solvent = Alcohol; Hydrocarbon = Oil
What is the Specific Gravity of most ignitable liquids?
Less than 1.
What are the 3 methods of Heat Transfer?
Conduction; Convection; Radiation
Define Conduction.
Transfer of heat by direct point to point contact.
Define Convection.
Transfer of heat by circulation of heated liquid or gas.
Define Radiation.
Transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves.
What is the most common method of Heat Tranfer during early fire development?
Conduction
What type of Heat Transfer causes most exposure fires?
Radiation
Define Exothermic.
Giving off Energy.
Define Endothermic.
Absorbs Energy.
Define Oxidation.
Formation of chemical bond between O2 & another substance.
Define Combustion.
Self sustaining chemical reaction yielding energy.
Define HRR.
Heat Release Rate; Rate fuel burns & releases heat.
How are HRRs measured?
British Thermal Units
What are the 4 components of the Fire Tetrahedron?
O2; Fuel; Heat; Self Sustaining Chemical Reaction
Define Flammable Range.
Range of Fuel Vapor & Air Concentrations.
How is Flammable Range expressed?
Expressed in percentage by volume of gas/vapor in air.
Define LFL.
Lower Flammable Limit; Minimum concentration of fuel vapor & air that supports combustion; Below LFL = Too Lean
Define UFL.
Upper Flammable Limit; Maximum concentration of fuel vapor & air that supports combustion; Above UFL = Too Rich
What are the 5 Phases of Fire Development?
Ignition; Growth; Flashover; Fully Developed; Decay
Define Ignition.
Period when all 4 elements of Fire Tetrahedron come together.
What are the 3 most common sources of Ignition Heat and which is the most common?
Chemical (most common); Electrical; Mechanical
Define Growth.
Fire Plum Forms & Gas Layering Increases
Define Flashover.
All exposed combustible surfaces involved.
At what temperature does Flashover occur?
900 to 1200 F
Define Fully Developed.
All combustibles involved.
During the Fully Developed Stage what controls the amount of fire?
Ventilation
Define Decay.
Fire is fuel controlled & Heat Release Rate declines.
What factors affect Fire Development?
Size & Number of Ventilation Openings; Volume & Thermal Properties of Compartment; Location of Additional Fuel Packages; Ceiling Height; Size, Composition, Location of Initial Fuel Package