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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a form of social interaction that promotes the transfer of cognitive processes to children
assisted discovery
teacher's guide child's learning
peer collaboration
teachers group together classmates of differing abilities and encourage them to learn and help one another
connect a new word w/ a concept after only a brief encounter
cognitive inhibition
the ability to control internal and external distracting stimuli
recontructing inaccurate speench into correct speech
elaborating on children's speech and increasiings its complexity
private speech?
self-directed speeech that children use to plan and guide their own behvior
--social-cultural theory of early childhood
- thinking about thought
- awareness of mental activites
applications to regular grammatical rules to which there are exceptions
general descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a specific situation or event. a general means to which children generalize their everyday experinces.
child-centered child care schools
school in which most of the day is devoted to play and the teacher provides a wide array of activities from which the children selects themselves
the practicial and social side of language concerned how to engage in effective and appropriate communications with others
preoperational stage
2nd stage, rapid growth in representation, not yet logical, ages b/w 2-7 years old
memory strategies
deliberate memory activites that improve the likihood of remembering
being able to understand that certain physical characteristics remain the same even when the outward appearance changes
sociodramatic play
shows an increase in complexity of schemes, the make-believe-play that first appears around the age of 2.5 yrs. old and increases rapidly until about 4/5 yrs. old
inabity to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own
feelins of sorrow or concern for another's plight
the sum total attributes, abilties, attitudes, and values that an individual believes defines who he/she is
an aspect of self-concept that involves judgements about one's own worth and the feelings associated with those judgements.
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which individuals starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat
the transition b/w childhood and adulthood. begins with puberty and involves accepting one's full-grown body, acquiring adult ways of thinking, attaining emotional and economic independence, developing more mature ways of relating to peers of both sexes, and constructing an identity
associative play
a form of true social participation in which children are engaged in sepertate activities, but they interact by exchanging toys and comment on one another's behavior
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder in which individuals engage in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by binge eating, often followed by deliberate vomiting and purging with laxatives
constructive play?
creating or constructing something
- 3-6 yrs oldd
functional play?
simple, repetitive motor movements, with or without objects
- 0-2 yrs old
make-believe play?
acting out everyday and imaginative roles, less self-centered, more detached from real-life situations
- 2-6 yrs old
non-social play
-unoccupied, onlooker behavior
- solitary play
parallel play
plays near other children with similar toys, but does not try to influence them
social interactions
associative play and cooperative play
three types of peer sociability?
1. non-social activity
2. social interations(associatice and cooperative play)
3. parellel play
3 types of cognitive play categories?
1. functional play
2. contructive play
3. make-believe play
2 things that can be done to support language development?
1. expansions
2. recasts
factors contributing to individual differnence in early childhood development?
1. home environment
2. tv =education television- about 1.5-2.5 hrs/day
3. quality of child-care
language development involves what aspencts?
grammar= overregularization, conversation= pragmatics,vocabulary= fast-mapping/2 yrs old know about 200 words and by 6 yrs old they know about 10,000 words
factors that enhance sociodramatic play?
[CLLAIMS]+ strenthened mental abitity
creativity, language + literacy, logicial reasoning, attention, imagination, memory, and self-reflecton and perspective taking
limitaions of thought
= poor mental processing abilities
1, egocentrism
2, animistic thinking
3, conservation
limitions of conversations
1, centration
2, irreversibility
advances in piaget's theory?
-sensibility to a child's readiness to learn
-acceptance to individual differences in children
- discovery learning
traits of Vygotsky's Social cultural theory and early childhood develpment?
-private speech
child becomes more silent, enhance self-guidance, highier cognitive processes
-planning, problem-solving, attention, memorization
--zone of proximial development= peer collaboration and assisted discovery, scaffolding enhances learning
list some improvements in information processing?
attention, memory= memory strategies and scripts,theory of mind=metacogniton, emerging literacy, mathematical reasoning
how piaget's theory might be inaccurate?
lack of conservatin
animistic thinking
irreversibility egocentrism
Erikson's theory?
-intiative versus guilt
-intiative= eagerness to try new tasks, join activites with peers, play permits trying new skills, act out highly visible occupations
-guilty= overly strict superego or conscience, causing too much guilt-related to excessive threats, critism, punishment, from adults
playing house, school, or police officer are (eg)s of this type of play?
make-believe play
running around a room, rolling a car back and forth, and kneading clay with no intent to make anything is a eg(s) of this type of play
functional play
making a house out of toy blocks and drawing a picture is an eg of this type of play?
constructive play
distinguish b/w self-esteem and self-concept?
-self-esteem- affects initiative, judgements we make about our own worth, emotional emphasis, includes global appraisal
---self-concepts= includes attributes, abilities, possessions, attitudes and values behavior, appearance, asserting rights to objects helps define boundary to self
prosocial behvavioral
actions that benifit another person without any expected reward for the self
list the aspects of emotional development in early childhood
1. increase ability to understand other's emotions
2. emotional self-regulation
3. more self-conscious emotions(shame, guilty) as self-concept develops
4. empathy, sympathy, and prosocial behavior increase
associative play
children engage in seperate activities but they exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior
cooperative play
a more advanced type of interaction in which children orient toward a common goal such as bulding a sand castle
a special type of discipline that helps the child notice feelings by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others.
--> Eg; Parent says, "if u keep pushing him he'll fall down and cry" or "she feels sad because you won't give back her doll"
four types of perspective of moral development?
1. Psychoanalytic perspective
2. Social Learning
3. Behaviorist
4. Cognitive-Development
explain the social learning theory of moral development?
theory concerning moral development that regards reinforcement and modeling as the basis for moral action.
explain the behaviorist perspective of moral development?
theory concernign moral development that uses rewards and punishment
explain the cognitive-developmental perspective of moral development?
theory concerning moral development that says that children are active thinkers about social rules
explain the psychoanalytic theory?
Freud's idea about superego and guilt that puts emphasis on induction, and empathy-based guilt
traits of good models of moral behvior?
- warm and sensitive
- competence and power
- consistency b/w words and behavior
when is effectiveness of punishment incresed?
when the following are present in punishment:
1. consistency
2. warmth and responsiveness
3. explanations
name some alternatives to punishment?
1. time out
2. withdrawing privileges
3. positve discipline
Factors related to malnutrition?
1. parent traits
2. child traits
3. familty traits
4. community
5. culture
achievements in concrete operational
1. classification
2. conservation
3. spatial reasoning
4. seriation
attention in middle childhood becomes: (3)
selective, adaptable, planful
development of memory strategies?
-both during eary grade school = rehearsal and organizaton
-during end of middle childhood = elaboration
Reading and Math during middle childhood?
I. reading
-whole-language approach
-basic skills approach
II. Math
-number sense