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99 Cards in this Set

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1st germanic ruler to be chrsitian
Clovis
Clovis' dynasty declined
divided among heirs - fought
power w/ gov. officials - mayors of the palace
charles martel
Mayor ot the palace
martell - "the hammer"
battle of Tours
Charles Martel's son
Pepin the short
Pepin the short
king of franks
backed by nobles & church
annointed by pope
forced lombards out of rome & gave strip of land to pope
pope cut ties w/ Byz & protected by franks
Pepin's son
Charlemange
Charlemange
"charles the great"
carolus magnus (latin) -> carolingian dynasty
enlarged borders
1st timesince rome moset of W euro under 1 gov
revive learning
chrlemagnge & learning
palace school
program of study based on bible & latin writeings
learned by copying ancient manuscripts
W euro now common set of ideas
Charlemange & christianity
defended pope leo III - pope crowned him Holy Roman Emperor - misgivings - pope more authority
Charlemange's gov.
central beuraucracy
counts - local officials
missi dominici - royal messengers - spies
collapse of Charlemange's empire
son - Louis the pious - weak
3 grandsons fought over throne
treaty of Verdun
Treaty of Verdun
Charles the bald - most of France
Louis the German - Germany
Lothair - Roman emperor & strip of land in middle of empire
go a-viking
fight as a warrior
viking ships
deckless
1 sail
powered by oars
could cross Atlantic
could go up rivers (shallow)
light
viking attacks
surprise
no place safe
targeted monasteries
left overpop homeland
no mercy
viking trade
also explorers & settlers
Norwegians settled greenland & iceland
reached N America
Danes temporarely held England
settled Normandy in NW France
Swedes settled in present Ukraine & russia
Viking culture
many deities
Runes
epics & sagas - later wrote down
later - christianity & Roman letters
Dark ages
invaders
trade declined
iliteracy
Feudalism based on
land & protection in exchange for services
Military technology from muslims
stirrup & sadle
estates w/ peasants
fiefs
feudalism became comlicated
vassels of many lords - went to war - conflicting loyalties - liege lord
ceremony of pledging loyalty
homage
vassels duties
military service
serve in court
fund for son(knight)/daughter(married)
food & lodging if visited
ransom
castles
defense
@ 1st wooden
than stone b/c fire
turrets
on hill
square tower in middle - keep
surrounded by area - bailey
not comfrotable
lords
almost total authority in fief
taxes
ladys
wed early as 12 - father selected man
duty - bring up childern, take care of household
needlework & medicine
sometimes took over fief if lord gone
feudal noble entertainment
tournaments - mock battles
hunted
falconry & archery (womwn also)
chivalry
code of conductthat gov. knight's lives
manors included
lord's house
pasture
fields
forest
village
commons
dif between feudaism & manorialism
F - political, lords & vassels
M - economical, lords & peasants
peasants
taxes
tithe
bridge/roads
holidays
lived to 40
1 Rm house
couldn't leave
hardest hit
serfs
bound to mannor but couldn't be sold away
inprovements in farming
new plow
crop rotation
sacraments
rituals necesary for salvation
baptism
penance
eucharist
confermation
matrimony
last rights
ordination
people's limited undersatnading of church
latin
priests no educated
learned from statues, paintings, stained-glass windows
secular clergy
bishops, priests - out in the world
regular clergy
monks, nuns - under rule - away from society
Benedictine rule
benedict (Rome) formed monastery - poverty & chastity under rule of abbot - model
monastic life
simple robes
1 or 2 meals/day
most - rules of silence
nuns
convent, abbess
wimple
prayer, spinning, embroidery, medicine, taught
influence of monastics
preserved literature (copied)
taught peasantsfarming improvements
misssionaries
schools, hospitals
Pope Gregory I
adopted benedictine rule
Pope Gregory I
adopted benedictine rule
punishments fo nobles by church
excamunication & interdict
feudal ties of church
wealth & political power
officails noblesgave land to knights for military servace
donations of land
nobles had relatives apointed
1st church reformist
Berno @ cluny
choosing of church officials reform
oficials chosen by pope
pope chosen by cardinals
Pope Gregory VII
monk Hildebrand
critisized lay investiture
Pope innocen III
condemed in clergy - dance, drink, feast -ing
rules for stoppin heresy
Albigenisan
heriticas in franc - innocent III sent kinghts to crush
inquisition
cour to try & punnish heritcs
imprisonment
loss of property
execution
to "save soul" of person
orders of friars
Francis of Assisi - Italy - Franciscan
Dominic - Spain - Dominican
friars
wandering preechers
folowed monastic rules
depended on charity
not isolated
Jews
position worsened
blamed for social problems
excuse for mobs to kill
interpritations of christian doctrine didn't help
blmed for Jesus' death
special clothes
ghettos
pedlers/moneylenders - despised jobs
expeled to E Europe - where thrived
celts defeated by
Angles, saxons, jutes - several kingdoms
Alfred the great
UNITED ANGLO-SAXONS
defeated danes
"Angleland"
revive learning
after Alfred
kingd weak - Edward the confessor - died - 3 rivals
3 rivals for Edward confessor's throne
William, Duke of normandy
Harlog goodwinson
Harold Hardrade
William Normandy
cousin of Edward
vassel of french king
lands in france
invaded Englad
won battle of hastings
Harold Goodwinson
king apointed by nobles
Wiliam the conqueror as king
took anglo-saxon land ->kept & to nobels
landoneders oath of loyalty
sherifs to collect taxes
census -Doomsday book
blended french & anglo-saxon ways
Henry I
William's son
royal exchequer
royal courts more authority
Henry II
common law
juges, grand jury, petit jury
comflict w/ Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket
Henry II wanted to try clergy
TB - archbishop pf canterbury - didn't like
killed by knights who thought were doing favor
John
lost land in france
increased taxes
punish enimies w/out trial
robin hood
Magna Carta
John
lost land in france
increased taxes
punish enimies w/out trial
robin hood
Magna Carta
magna carta
nobles force John to sigh @ Runnymede to protect feudal rights - later to all english people
middle class
R of henry III
new social class
money from buisiness
important in gov
towns growing in power
great council
burgesses, knights, nobels, clergy
Model parliament
called by Henry III's son edward I - gov. more rep.
encouraged to advise & submit petitions to king
after charlemagnge
power w/ feudal lords
Hugh Capet
siezed power from carolingian king
dynasty - capetian
principle of inheritance thru eldest son
strengthened monarchy
Lois VI
strenghtened royal gov @ expense of feudal lords
towndpeople & clergy as advisors
self-gov to towns
officials loyal to monarch no lord
Philip II
philip augustus
dobled domain - marriage & conquest
apointed officail loyal to him
weakened power of feudal lords
Louis IX
Philip II's grandson
only king could make coins
bans on private warfare & carying weapons
ideal b/c relgios, chivalrous, moral
Philip IX
Louis IX's grandson
philip th fair
increased territory
taxed clergy to pay fo wars
Pope boniface VII mad but couldn't do anything
assembly to collect taxes nationaly
Major Domo
mayor of the palace
longships called
drekars
1st monerstry attacked by vikings
lindisfarne
Ibn Fadlan
met vikings on travels - recorded
Jelling stone
king Harold bluetooth of denmark
united demark & made christian
Erik the red
descovered greenland
Leif Ericson
Vinland
L'anse medows in america
Courdale horde
buried treasure
found by workmen
now - british museum
tortoise
buildings on wheel - protected soldiers
Ballista
huge crossbow
Elenor of Aquitaine
wife - Louis VII, Henry II
mother - Richard I, John
Papal curia
pope's advisors
chuches law
cannon law
1st archbishop of canterbury
St. Augutine
Harlod Harade
related to king Canute (danish king ruled England) defaeted @ battle of Stamford
Bayeaux tapestry
of norma conquest
primogeniture
eldest son inherits
otto the great (I)
Roman
close w/ church
increase power of monarchy
church resented power
lay invetiture controversy
Pope Gregory II - Banned
Henry IV - Vicious letter to pope ordering him to step down
Pope excommunicates Henry
Henry loses support
Showdown at Canossa
Henry IV
Pleads in front of castle of the pope
3 days
Pope forgives Henry
Great for power of pope
Punishes all nobles who sided with the pope
Leads army and has the pope exiled
Concordat of worms
Emperor has the right to appoint bishops and grant them land
Pope has the right to reject unworthy candidates
Pope innocent II
Excommunicated King John
Put England on interdict
Excommunicated Phillip II
Fourth crusade