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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 bodies of water sround arabian pen.
red sea & persian gulf
2 climates of arabin pen.
SW - mountains, valleys, water
rest - aerid planes & deserts
fertile areas around water holes
oases
Bedouin lived as
nomadic herders
bedouin lived in
tents from animal hair
Bedouin ate
dates, milk, mutton(special occasions)
Bedouin tribes
related families - valued family ties
Bedouin tribe lead by
sheikh -
appointed by heads of families
advised by council of elders
ruled as long as had tribes consent
Bedouin & warfare
part of life
raids for camels & horses
fights over pasture & water
believed in retaliation
Bedouin entertainment
camel & horse races
storytelling - poems
by AD 500s - Bedouin
settled around oases & fertile valleys - mercahnts frounded towns
Mecca & trade
center
crossroads
caravans
other spelling of mecca
makkah
ka'aba @ 1st
travelers came to worship at
in Mecca
statues of many deities
pilgrims made merchants wealthy
change in mecca
buisiness eis replaced family ties
tribal rule no longer adaquate
whAt introduced monotheism
contact w/ byz, persains, & ethiopians
hanifs
holy men - monotheistic, rejected Judaism & cristianity, wanted arab religion
Islam means
submision to the will of allah
early life of muhammad
born in mecca, orphaned, raised by uncle, caravan leader
khadija
wealthy widow - muhammads employer - married him
muhammad troubled by
wealthy citizens
idol worship
mistreatment of poor
muhammads revelation
in cave, heard voice, call to be apostle of one true god, angel gabriel, "recite" 3x, rise & warn about divine judgement
muhammad preached
1 god
everyoe worship & obey allah
all believers equal
rich share wealth w/ poor
worth from devotion & deeds
live in prep for day of judgement
1st converts
Khadija & family
poor
rejected isalm @ 1st
merchants & religios leaders - got money from worship @ Ka'aba - persecuted muhammad 7 muslims
Muhammad left mecca
b/c threats on life - wentr to yathrib - called hijrah
Yathrib acceptd muhammad
as prophet & leader - named city madinah (Madinat al-Nabi) "the city of the prophet"
Midinah compact
muhammad
foundation of islamic state
loyalty to islamic community over tribe
protection to christionas & Jews who accepted Islamic authority
disputes settled by muhammad
all areas of life under divine law
how Muhammad back to mecca
meccans attacked - forced to ratliate - muslima won - went back to mecca
what muhammad did when came back to mecca
was little resistance - Islam accepted
destroyed idols in ka'aba -> into place built by abraham
spiritual cpital (madina still political capital)
muhammad's death
after ilness
in medinah
Quran made of
copied & memorized muhammad's messagaes - gathered by succesor Abu Bakr over 20 yrs
Quran means
recital
muslims toled to by quran
honor parents
kindness to neibors
protect orphans & widows
give to poor
told not to in Quran
murder
steel
lie
commit adultry
Quran forbids
gambling
eating pork
drinking alcohol
Islamic scribes
Shari'ah
shari'ah
legal schoolers who organized morals into law - all aspects of life
5 pillars of Islam
confession of faith
prayer
alms-giving
fasting
pilgramage to mecca
judgement day
people will rise from death & be judged by actions -
if faithful - eternal happiness in paradise
if not - hell forever
respect for jews & christians
others also prophets - muhammad last & greatest
"people of the book"
descendents of abraham:
Arabs - son Ishmael
Jews - son Issac
Jesus got god's messages & performed miracles
when must prey
sunrise
noon
afternoon
sunset
evening
how prey
face mecca - kneel, bow, forehead to groud
prayer leader
imam
imam
uides prayer @ mosque on fri.
any male muslim w/ propper training
alms
private contributions & public tax
fasting when
month of ramadan - don't est or drink from sunrise to sunset - after call to prayer "evening breakfast"
exempt from fasting
children
pregnant women
travelers
sick
ramadan ends w/
3 day celebration
pilgramage to mecca
Hajj
when hajj
2 months + 10 days after ramadan
hajj is
3 days of ceremony, prayer, sacrifice
hajj is
3 days of ceremony, prayer, sacrifice
beginning of caliph
no sucession
group of prominant muslims elected new leader
"rightly guided caliphs"
chosen for life
asked advice of other muslim leaders
1st 4 caliphs
"rightly guided caliphs"
why armies under rightly guided calphs sucessful
religios duty
other weak
religios perseuction - welcomed
well disciplined
last RGC
Ali (son-in-law)
rival weakend hold on cliphate
murdered by own folower
-> umayyads
1st umayyad caliph
Mu'awiyah
rebels during umayyads
ali's son husayn didn't accept rule - ...+ followers killes @ battle of Karbala -> devision
Sunni
"followees of the way"
majority
politacl leader
any devoute muslim caliph
Shiite
Ali + Husayn
cliph only descendents of muhammad thru fatimah & ali
religios caliph
martyerdom sa sign of devotion
Sufism
disatisfied w/ worldliness
mysical forms of islam
direct contact w/ god
missionaries
umayyad capital
moved fdrom medinah to damascus - more centraly locad
Umayyads in france
stopped by charles martel - Tours
umayyad reforms
united lands
arabic
currency
postal service
civil service
opposition to umayyads
disatifaction of non arab muslims - discriminated, tax, lower wages in gov & army jobs
joined w/ shiite opposition
army
dinner party
abbasids
1st abbasid caliph
Abu'l-'Abbas