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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Integumentary System, main parts
Skin:
Epidermis
Dermis
Accessory organs
Epidermis
Upper layer of skin, includes:
Basal region
Spinosum layer
Granulosum layer
Corneum
Basal region
Produces cells.

Stratified squamous cells, major cell type
Melanocytes, produces melanin, sunshine activates production
Langerhans, consume invading organisms
Spinosum layer
New cells get waterproof layer of keratin protein here.
Keratinization
When cells receive waterproof layer of keratin. Over-active keratinization causes dandruff.
Granulosum layer
Lipids fill spaces between cells here, keeping it waterproof and protected against foreign materials. But it isolates cells from blood, and they begin to die.
Corneum
Multiple layers of dead cells called keratinocytes, waterproof. Few microbes can survive here, constant shedding also protects against invaders.
Dermis
Lower skin layer, contains:
Collagen, retards over-stretching
Elastin, as above, plus helps contract muscles
Blood Vessels, regulate body temp
Sweat glands, active when temps rise
Sebaceus glands, lubes hair, preserves skin.
Sebum
Oily substance secreted by sebaceus glands, acidic, retards growth of bacteria. Can back up in gland and become infected--acne.
Hair color
Melanocytes in bulb of follicle cause hair color. Blond or red: melanocytes with iron and sulfur. Grey: melanin not being produced. White: bubbles in hair shaft.
Nails
Plates of tightly packed keratinized epidermal cells.
Cuticle
Tough layer of corneum cells at margin of nail.
Lunula
From luna, moon. Whitish crescent at base of nail. White because of thickened basal layer.
Body cavities (5)
Thorasic
Abdominal
Pelvic
Cranial
Vertebral
Thorasic cavity
Heart, lungs, esophagus
Abdominal cavity
Stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas, intestines.
Pelvic cavity
Reproductive organs
Cranial cavity
Brain
Vertebral cavity
Spinal cord
Body Membranes (4)
Meninges
Serous
Mucous
Synovial
Meninges
Membrane lines brain and spinal cord.
Serous
Membrane lines lungs, heart, abdominal cavity.
Mucous
Membrane lines digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems.
Synovial
Membrane lines movable joints.
Homeostasis
Maintaining constant internal environment.
Negative feedback
Sensor detects problem, activates control center to bring conditions back to normal.
Hypothalamus region of brain
Control center for body temperature regulation. Above 98.6 degrees causes blood vessel dilation and sweat gland activity. Below constricts vessels, shivering generates body heat, blood sent to core.
Positive Feedback
Causes increasing change.
Inflammation
Mast cells release histamine
Causes capillaries to dilate and leak plasma into surrounding tissues; swelling
Puts pressure on nerve endings, causing pain, attracting leukocytes
Leukocytes destroy microbes and release cytokines that increase inflammation
Cytokines attract other leukocytes such as monocytes that promote inflammation