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44 Cards in this Set

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Mycoplasma morphology
Mycoplasma morphology:
- no cell wall: G stain not good, use Giemsa
- very small: pass through filters, hard to see
- pleomorphic: rings, spirals, filaments
Mycoplasma colonies
Mycoplasma colonies:
- minute
- soft agar: 20% serum, cholesterol (for cell mem), Pen, thallium acetate (to inhibit regular bacti)
- 3-7 days 5-10% O2: minute fried-eggs as center digs into agar
Mycoplasma ID
Mycoplasma ID:
1. colony Diene's stain
2. colony FA stain: specific
3. growth inhibition by specific antiserum
4. serology: (Ab) ELISA, agglutination, hemagglutination inhibition
Mycoplasma virulence
Mycoplasma virulence:
1. attachment to mucosa via: capsular material (galactan in M. mycoides), contractile protein ( M. gallisepticum)
2. cytotoxins, endotoxins in some
3. hydrogen peroxide: cell injury
4. metabolic competition: some deplete Arg= dec lymphocyte fx
5. surface Ag variation
Mycoplasma dz
Mycoplasma dz:
- endo or exogenous: aerosol, venereal, vertical ( in utero/ egg)
- pathogenesis: host stress, viral/bacti infection, poor ventilation
- dz: respiratory, jts, mammae, urogenital
Mycoplasma tx, control
Mycoplasma tx, control:
1. TETRA, tylosin, erythro, tiamulin, lincomycin, spectinomycin, enrofloxacin
2. vaccs: don't eradicate
- poultry: live M. gallisepticum
- pigs: M. hyopneumoniae bacterin
- contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: live
3. admit only SPF animals in dz free herds, flocks
Mycoplasma habitat
Mycoplasma habitat:
- mucosa
- mostly host specific
- environmental survival short
Mycoplasma bovine mastitis
Mycoplasma bovine mastitis:
- contagious agalactia: M. bovis, rarely other spp
- dec, abnormal milk
- high SCC
- ID, cull infected: tx not effective
Mycoplasma bovine genital inf
Mycoplasma bovine genital inf:
- mainly M. bovis, but also bovigenitaleum, canadense, ureaplasma
- aberrant estrus cycles
- less common: vaginitis, endometritis, seminal vesiculitis
- antibiotics (minocycline) semen extender
- intrauterine instillation of Tetra
Mycoplasma bovine arthritis
Mycoplasma bovine arthritis:
- M. bovis: USA, Can
- capable of systemic invasion: arthritis, pneumonia
Mycoplasma bovine pneumonia
Mycoplasma bovine pneumonia:
- M. dispar
- calves
- progressive w/ Pasteurella, Mannheimia
Mycoplasma contagious bovine pleuropneumonia dz
Mycoplasma contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP):
- endemic: Africa, Asia, Middle East, Meditteranean
- M. mycoides mycoides
1. lung congestion, consolidated lobules, thickened interlobular septae
2. blood-tinged pleural fluid, fibrin
3. fibrin deposition, marbling
CBPP signs
CBPP signs
1. high fever
2. labored breathing, head extended
3. mucopurulent nasal discharge
4. possible death: 1-3 weeks
M. agalactae small R
M. agalactae small R:
- worldwide, esp Europe
1. severe mastitis: dec milk, possible complete fibrosis
2. septicemia
3. death: 20% effected animals
4. arthritis in survivors
- tetra, control via culling
M capricolum capripneumoniae gen
M capricolum capripneumoniae:
- contagious caprine pleuropneumonia
- Africa, Middle East
- agent: fragile, difficult to grow, isolate
- incubation ~10 days
- goats of all ages
contagious caprine pleuropneumonia signs
contagious caprine pleuropneumonia signs:
1. fever
2. accelerated resp, extended neck, violent coughing
3. continuous salivation, mucopurulent nasal discharge
4. inability to move
5. death
- subacute, chronic: milder signs
contagious caprine pleuropneumonia pathology
contagious caprine pleuropneumonia pathology:
1. hepatization, adhesion, pleuritis, accumulation of pleural fluid
2. pleural exudate can solidify to form a gelatinous fibrin covering on lung
3. NO thickening of interlobular tissue (unlike CBPP)
4. granular, liver-like lungs
CCPP dx:
- frozen pleural fluid, section of hepatized lung at interface of normal/dz tissue +serum to lab (in ice if <2 days)
1. special Mycoplasma media
2. PCR: dried pleural fluid on paper
3. serology: latex agglutination
CCPP prevention, control
CCPP prevention, control:
1. affected, in contact: dx, slaughter
~~~endemic areas~~
1. vaccs: sonicated Ag emulsified in adjuvant
- strain inactivated w/ saponin
2. antibiotics: Tetra, tylosin, tiamulin
- shouldn't be used in eradication
Mycoplasma (Eperythrozoon) ovis
Mycoplasma (Eperythrozoon) ovis:
- ovine eperythrozoonosis
- worldwide: arthropods poss involved
- lambs: fever, anemia (parasitized RBCs), enlarged/ soft spleen
- ewes may carry
M. hyopneumoniae dz
M. hyopneumoniae:
- enzootic pneumonia: worldwide, all ages of swine
- predisp: poor vent, crowding
- coughing, poor growth
- PM: consolidation of apical, cardiac lobes
M. hyorhinitis dz
M. hyorhinitis:
- young pigs (<10 weeks): chronic polyserositits, arthritis
- fever, labored breathing, lameness, swollen jts
- PM: serofibrinous pleurisy, pericarditis, peritonitis
M. hyorhinitis dx, tx
M. hyorhinitis:
- dx: lesions, culture, rule out Hemophilus suis and Strep suis
- Tylosin, lincomycin (early admin)
M. hyopneumoniae dx, tx
M. hyopneumoniae:
- dx: FA sample , culture
- Tylosin, Tiamulin, Lincomycin
- vaccs: poor protection
- prevent: dev of SPF herds
M. hyosynoviae
M. hyosynoviae:
- pigs 10-30 weeks: polyarthritis
- culture ID
- prevention: early weaning, prophy tylosin in feed of problem herds
- no commercial vaccs
M. gallisepticum dz
M. gallisepticum:
- worldwide
1. chronic respiratory dz: chicken
- nasal dis, tracheal rales, coughing, sneezing
2. infectious sinusitis: turkey
- swelling of paranasal sinuses, mild conjunctivitis
- dec growth, egg production
M. gallisepticum dx, tx
M. gallisepticum:
- dx: culture, HI on serum
- tetra in feed, tylosin in water
- eggs: tylosin, heat to 46.1 C
- vaccs: variable efficacy, partial protection
M. meleasgridis dz
M. meleagridis:
- turkey pathogen: worldwide, egg transmitted
- dec hatchability, air sacculitis in poultry
- lameness: poor growth, skeletal abnormalities
M. meleasgridis dx, tx
M. meleasgridis:
- culture, confirm by FA
- serology: plate agglutination
- tiamulin:water for 1st 10 says life
- use M. m free egss: egg dipping
- No vaccs
M. synoviae dz
M. synoviae dz:
- poultry: infectious synovitis
- aerosol transmission
- lameness: synovitis, arthritis
- resp: nasal discharge, rales
M synoviae dx, tx
M. synoviae:
- dx: culture, serology
- feed: Tetra
- water: lincomycin, spectinomuycin
- dev: SPF stocks
- acquire stock from M. s free flocks
Mycoplasma present in healthy dogs
Mycoplasma present in healthy dogs but may cause dz:
- M. cynos: kennel cough complex
- M. canis: endometritis, infertility
- Ureaplasma spp: poss infertility
M. hemocanis (Hemobartonella canis) dz
M. hemocanis (Hemobartonella canis) dz:
- infectious, progressive anemia: splenectomized or immunocomp dogs
- tick transmission poss
- lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, fever
- death in some cases
M. hemocanis (Hemobartonella canis) dx, tx
M. hemocanis (Hemobartonella canis):
- dx: coccoid org seen on RBCs in stained blood, PCR
- isolation by culture difficult
- acute cases: doxy
M. felis
M. felis:
- conjunctivitis: young cats
- poss role in arthritis, resp dz
M. gatae
M. gatae:
- cats
- poss role in chronic arthritis, tenosynovitis
M. hemofelis (Hemobartonella felis) dz
M. hemofelis (Hemobartonella felis):
- feline inf anemia: contagious, esp in free-roaming cats <3 y/o, esp males
- inf: bite wounds, vertical trans
- severe hemolytic anemia: death or chronic, weak carriers
- prominent icterus
M. hemofelis (Hemobartonella felis) dx, tx
M. hemofelis (Hemobartonella felis):
- dx: blood smear FA, PCR
- non-culturable
- tx: tetra, fluoros, blood transfusion
Horse Mycoplasma
Horse Mycoplasma:
- dz uncommon
1. M. felis: pleuritis, pneumonia reported
2. M. equigenitalium: abortion
rodent Mycoplasma
rodent Mycoplasma:
- pulmonis: resp dz
CBPP dx:
1. signs
2. pm lesions
3. FA of pleural fluid
5. agglutination for Ab
CBPP diff dx
CBPP diff dx:
- pneumonic
- Pasteurella/ Mannheimia inf
- hemorrhagic septicemia
CBPP prevention
CBPP prevention:
1. before importation: serology (agglut, ELISA)
2. dz free areas: test and slaughter policy
3. tx: leads to carrier state, not recc
4. live vaccs: endemic areas, not USA, CAN
MAKePS in goats
MAKePS in goats:
- worldwide
- various Mycoplasma
1. Mastitis: cannot be tx, cull
2. Arthritis
3. Keratitis
4. Pneumonia
5. Septicemia