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67 Cards in this Set

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Name the 2 compartments of the arm and which muscles are in each. What is the action of each
anterior-biceps brachii, brachialis, coracobrachialis=flexors
posterior-triceps brachii=extensors
What do the two proximal heads of the biceps brachii attach to?
both attach to scapula
short head-coracoid porcess
long-supraglenoid tubercle
What fixes the long head of the biceps brachii in place?
transverse humeral ligament
Describe the path of the long head of the biceps brachii as it attches to the supraglenoid tubercle.
runs into glenoid joint, over head of humerus, inside the intertubercular groove where it will be fixed in place
What does the distal end of the biceps brachii attach to? What separates them to reduce abration?
tuberosity of radius
bicipitoradial bursa
After attaching to the tuberosity of the radius the biceps continues as what? What does this merge with?
bicipital aponeurosis
antebrachial (deep) fascia
Where is the antebrachial fascia located?
on top of flexor muscles in medial side of forearm
What is the function of the bicipital aponeurosis?
protect brachial artery and median nerve in cubital fossa, lessons pressure on biceps tendon on radial tuberosity during pronation and supination of forearm
What is the action of the biceps brachii?
flexes forearm when elbow is extended
supine the forearm when elbow is flexed (ie drive a screw)
What innervates the biceps brachii?
musculocutaneous nerve
What is being tested in the bicipital myotatic reflex?
deep-tendon reflex, musculocutaneous N or C5,6
What are some injuries that can happen to the long head of the biceps brachii?
biceps tendonitis, dislocation of the tendon, rupture of the tendon
What is the appearance of a rupture of the tendon of the long head of the biceps?
"Popeye deformity"-detached muscle forms ball near center of distal part of anterior aspect of arm
What is the function of the brachialis?
elbow flexor
What innervates the brachialis?
musculocutaneous N
What is the origination and insertion of the brachialis?
o-humerus
i-corocoid process of ulna
Which nerve pierces through the coracobrachialis? (the same nerve that innervates it)
musculocutaneous
What is the function of the coracobrachialis?
flexes and adducts arm
The coracobrachialis cooperates w/ the deltoid and long head of triceps to do what?
stabilize glenohumeral joint by resisting downward dislocation of the head of the humerus
Which 2 nerves run deep to the coracobrachialis?
median and humeral
What is the origin and insertion of the triceps brachii?
o-olecranon of ulna
i-infraglenoid tubercle
What is the function of the triceps brachii?
extend forearm, stabilize glenohumeral joint when arm is adducted, prevents inferior displacement of head of humerus, extension and adduction of arm
What helps to reduce the friction between the tendon and olecranon?
the distal attachment passes over the subtendinous olecranon bursa
How can the triceps be tested for injury?
abduct the arm 90 degrees first, then extend elbow joint against resistance
What innervates the triceps brachii?
radial N
What is the small relatively unimportant muscle in the posterior compartment of the arm?
anconeus
Where does the bradhial artery begin and end? What does it branch into?
from inferior border of teres major and ends in cubital fossa under the bicipital aponeurosis, divides into radial and ulnar arteries
What nerve does the brachial artery run with?
median
Where is the brachial artery located w/ respect to the humerus, triceps and brachialis?
at first medial to humerus, anterior to triceps and brachialis, eventually becomes anterior to humerus
What are the branches of the brachial artery on the medial side? (lateral branches aren't named)
deep artery of arm
nutrient humeral
superior ulnar collateral
inferior ulnar collateral
Which medial branch of the brachial artery is the most superior and the largest branch?
deep artery of the arm
Which 2 medial branches of the brachial artery arise in the middle of the arm?
nutrient humeral and superior ulnar collateral
Which medial branch of the brachial artery arises close to the elbow?
inferior ulnar collateral
Which medial branch of the brachial artery runs w/ the radial nerve?
deep artery of the arm
Which medial branch of the brachial artery runs w/ the ulnar nerve?
superior ulnar collateral
Where is the best place to compress the brachial artery to stop bleeding?
compress against the humerus near the middle of the arm
What may be damaged when the humeral bone is fractured?
brachial artery and radial nerve
Name the superficial veins of the arm. How do these 2 veins communicate
cephalic and basilica
communicate through median cubital vein
On what side is the cephalic and basilica vein located? Where does each drain?
cephalic-lateral
basilica-medial
both drain to axillary vein
What are the four major nerves that pass through the arm? Which 2 have branches?
musculocutaneous and radial branch
median and ulnar don't branch
Which cord of the brachial plexus does the musculocutaneous nerve branch from?
lateral
What does the musculocutaneous nerve innervate?
all anterior flexors (3 muscles)
Describe the path of the musculocutaneous nerve.
begins at inferior border of pectoralis minor, pierces coracobrachialis, runs in between biceps and brachialis, ends at lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm
The radial nerve is a direct continuation of which brachial plexus cord?
posterior
Which muscle does the radial nerve innervate?
triceps
Where does the radial nerve branch?
lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Which artery does the radial nerve run with?
deep artery of the arm
Where is the radial nerve located w/ respect to the triceps, brachial artery and humerus?
anterior to triceps, posterior to brachial artery, medial to humerus
What does the deep branch of the radial nerve continue on to become?
posterior interosseous nerve
Which part of the skin does the superficial radial nerve supply?
posterior forearm and dorsum of hand
What does the median nerve form from?
union of lateral and medial cord of the brachial plexus
What does the median nerve innervate?
elbow joint
Describe the path of the median nerve? What does it run with?
runs lateral to brachial artery until middle of arm, crosses to medial side and descends to cubital fossa, runs under bicipital aponeurosis
What nerve comes from the medial cord of the brachial plexus?
ulnar
What does the ulnar nerve innervate?
muscles of hands and a few forearm muscles
What does the ulnar nerve pierce?
medial intermuscular septum
What artery does the ulnar nerve run with?
superior ulnar collateral
At the distal arm what is the path of the ulnar nerve?
passes posterior to medial epicondlye and medial to olecranon to enter forearm
Where is the ulnar nerve located w/ respect to the triceps and brachial artery?
anterior to triceps
medial to brachial artery
What makes the 'crazy bone'?
ulnar nerve running posterior to epicondyle
What can occur with injury tot he musculocutaneous nerve?
paralysis of coracobrachialis, biceps and brachialis, weakened forearm flexion and supination, loss of sensation on lateral surface of forearm
What is the sign of a radial nerve injury?
wrist-drop, can't extend at metacarpophalangeal joints
What can be the result of injury to the radial nerve before the branches to the triceps? What is the difference if the nerve isn't injured until after the triceps?
paralysis of triceps, brachioradialis, supinator and extensors of wrist and digits, loss of sensation in dorsum hand and digits, injury after -triceps may not be completely paralyzed
What are the boundaries of the cubital fossa?
superior-imaginary line connectingmedial and lateral epicondyles
medial-pronator teres
lateral-brachioradialis
floor-brachialis and supinator muscles of forearm
roof-deep fascia and bicipital aponeurosis
What is contained in the cubital fossa?
terminal part of brachial arteries and its branches, radial and ulnar arteries, deep veins, biceps brachii tendon, median nerve, radial nerve branches and median cubital nerve
What is the clinical significance of the cubital fossa?
venipuncture
Which fingers are affected with injury at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint? DIP? metacarpophalangeal?
-flexion of digits 1-3 are lost, 4-5 are weakened
-flexion of 2-3 lost, 4-5 not affected
-flexion of 2-3 affected