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92 Cards in this Set

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What is the main CNS controller of the ANS?
Hypothalamus
What gives input to the hypothalamus? (3 things)
-Prefrontal cortex
-Olfactory cortex
-Hippocampus
What is the primary olfactory cortex?
Pyriform cortex
What part of the hypothalamus gives parasympathetic outflow?
The rostral part
(anterior hypothalamic nucleus)
What part of the hypothalamus gives sympathetic outflow?
Caudal (PVN)
What does both the caudal and rostral hypothalamus also send output to?
Medulla reticular formation
What tract takes sympathetic outflow from the hypothalamus and reticular formation to the intermediolateral cell column in the spinal cord?
Reticulospinal tract
(hypothalamoreticulospinal tract)
What important regulating centers are located in the medulla which are controlled by the reticular formation?
-Respiratory
-Cardiovascular
-Alimentary (GI)
How does visceral outflow from the brainstem get to PNS targets?
Via DMNX
What nerves take visceral afferent info from Baroreceptors and Chemoreceptors into the brainstem?
CN 9 and 10 (via NTS)
How does ANS control differ from skeletal somatic control?
It is not conscious, so doesn't recieve input from cortex as much.
What are the primary circuits for autonomic control?
Reflex arcs
What are the 2 components to a reflex arc?
-Afferent
-Efferent
Are the autonomic reflex arcs restricted to autonomic efferent or afferent limbs?
No - they can also be somatic
Where does control of simple reflexes take place?
Entirely within the organ concerned
Where does control of more complex autonomic reflexes take place?
In a circuit that involves the hypothalamus and higher autonomic centers.
So 3 things in an Autonomic reflex pathway:
-Sensory afferent
-CNS interneuron
-Visceral efferent
What would be an example of a
-Visceral afferent
-Somatic afferent
Visc: Vagal afferents
Somatic: nociception
Where does the afferent information get processed in autonomic reflex arcs?
In spinal cord neurons
What do the spinal interneurons do after processing afferent input?
Stimulate Preganglionic SNS or PNS neurons
What are the 2 options that efferent output of a reflex arc can be conveyed?
-Splanchnic
-Somatic
Where are arterial baroreceptors located?
-Carotid sinus
-Aortic arch
Where are Cardiopulmonary baroreceptors found?
-SVC/IVC
-Atria/Ventricles
-Coronary arteries
-Pulmonary vessels
What type of classic feedback is represented by the Baroreflex?
Negative feedback
What does a drop in blood pressure sensed by the carotid baroreceptors result in?
Decreased firing rate in the nerve -> decreased PNS outflow to the heart -> increased SNS vasotone -> Increased MAP/TPR
What is the Exercise Pressor Reflex?
An increase in SNS activity and decrease in PNS activity in response to skeletal muscle exercise.
How does the exercise pressor reflex affect respiration?
It increases motorneuronal discharge to the respiratory muscles.
What are the 4 main physiological changes due to the exercise pressor reflex?
1. Cardioacceleration
2. Vasoconstriction
3. Airway dilation
4. Increased cardiac contractility
What is the purpose of the exercise pressor reflex?
To deliver oxygenated blood to metabolically active tissues and remove H/CO2 from them
What is the purpose of vasoconstricting?
To increase perfusion pressure so blood still gets to the muscles during long-duration muscle contractions (benching)
What are the 4 autonomic ganglia in the head? (cervical)
1. Ciliary
2. Pterygopalatine
3. Submandibular
4. Otic
Where do the preganglionic parasympathetics that enter the ciliary ganglion originate?
Edinger Westphal nucleus in the brainstem
Where do the sympathetics that enter the ciliary ganglion originate?
From postganglionic fibers of the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion.
(via internal carotid plexus)
What sensory root passes through the Ciliary ganglion?
Nasociliary nerves from the V1 Ophthalmic nerve
How does sympathetic and parasympathetic output get from the Ciliary ganglion to targets?
By the short ciliary nerves
What are the targets of the Ciliary ganglion?
-Pupillary muscles (pupil)
-Ciliary muscles (lens)
Where do the preganglionic parasympathetics that enter the pterygopalatine ganglion originate?
Superior salivatory nucleus
Where do the sympathetics that enter the pterygopalatine ganglion originate?
Superior cervical ganglion (via internal carotid plexus)
What sensory root passes through the pterygopalatine ganglion?
V2 Maxillary nerves
How does sympathetic and parasympathetic output get from the pterygopalatine ganglion to targets?
Via various rami
What are the targets of the Pterygopalatine ganglion?
-Lacrimal gland
-Mucous membranes
Where do the preganglionic parasympathetics that enter the Submandibular ganglion originate? How do they get to the ganglion?
Superior salivatory nucleus of the facial nerve - get to ganglion via CN9, Chorda tympani, and Lingual nerve
Where do the sympathetics that enter the Submandibular ganglion originate?
Plexus of the external maxillary artery (superior cervical postganglionics)
What sensory root passes through the Submandibular ganglion?
Sensory root from the Geniculate ganglion (tongue information)
How does sympathetic and parasympathetic output get from the Submandibular ganglion to targets? what are the targets?
via short postganglionics to the submandibular and sublingual glands
Where does the Otic ganglion get its PNS input from?
Inferior salivatory nucleus
Where does the Otic ganglion get its SNS input from?
Superior cervical ganglion
What sensory roots pass through the otic ganglion?
CN 9 and 10
What is the target of the Otic ganglion?
Parotid gland
What division of the autonomic nervous system mainly controls the IMMUNE System?
Sympathetic
What do sympathetic fibers do in the BONE MARROW?
Modulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and mobilization
What do sympathetic fibers do in SPLEEN AND LYMPH NODES?
-modulate innate reactions
-Modulate magnitude and timing of acquired responses
At what spinal cord levels do the sympathetics in the ciliary ganglion that innervate the dilator pupillae muscles originate?
T1/T2
What should happen when you shine a light in one eye?
The retina sends afferents through the pretectum to Edinger westphal nuclei on BOTH SIDES of the head via POSTERIOR COMMISSURE
What is this pathway called?
The pupillary light reflex
Are there autonomics in the limbs?
YES
What type of autonomic innervation is in the limbs?
Sympathetic
How are the sympathetic postganglionic efferents distributed to the limbs?
Via somatic spinal efferents.
What are the sympathetic targets in the limbs?
-Vascular smooth muscle
-Sweat glands
-Piloerector muscles
What % of skeletal nerve muscle fibers are sympathetics?
8%!! interesting!
Is there a correlate in the ANS target interface to the neuromuscular junction of somatic nerves?
No
What is on the end of presynaptic ANS fibers where they terminate on target organs?
Varicosities
What is autonomic motor / target synaptic transmission like?
Turning on a sprinkler system
What are the 2 most important transmitters in the ANS?
-Acetylcholine
-Norepinephrine
What is the nature of sympathetic system activation?
GENERAL
What is the nature of Parasympathetic system activation?
SPECIFIC
What do all SNS and PNS preganglionics use as their NT? What type of receptor does it act on?
ACh
-on nicotinic cholinergic receptors.
What do PNS postganglionics use as their NT? What does it act on?
-ACh
-on muscarinic cholinergic receptors
What do SNS postganglionics use as their NT? What does it act on?
-NE
-on adrenergic receptors, alpha or beta depending on the organ.
What do SNS postganglionics that innervate the sweat glands use?
ACETYLCHOLINE
Where do splanchnic nerves that pass thru the sympathetic chain without synapsing go?
To either enteric ganglia or the adrenal medulla.
What happens when preganglionic sympathetics innervate the adrenal medulla?
Postganglionic sympathetic chromaffin cells release NE/Epi directly into the blood.
How is Norepinephrine deactivated at a synapse?
By reuptake
How does NE deactivation compare to that of ACh? What is the effect?
Slower than enzymatic hydrolyxis of ACh, so SNS stimulation is more diffuse than PNS.
What stimulates the general broad sympathetic response exogenously?
Injections of NE, Epi, and Methoxamine
What drug stimulates specific adrenergic response at ALPHA receptors?
Phenylephrine
What drug stimulates specific adrenergic response at BETA receptors?
Isoproterenol
What drug stimulates specific adrenergic response at BETA2 receptors?
Albuterol
How do Ephedrine and Amphetamines work?
By stimulating release of NE from storage vesicles at sympathetic nerve endings
What is Phentolamine?
alpha receptor blocker
What is Propanolol?
beta receptor blocker
What is Isoproterenol?
Beta receptor AGONIST
What terminates ACh action at parasympathetic synapses?
Acetylcholinesterase
What are organophosphorous compounds?
Nerve gas and pesticides - ACHesterase inhibitors
What do interneurons within the autonomic ganglia use as their neurotransmitter?
Dopamine
What is congenital absence of ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus called?
Hirschsprung's disease - Megacolon
What causes Megacolon?
Failure of neural crest to migrate to the colon during development
What is Familial dysautonomia?
A genetic disease in Ashkenazi jews where there are no neurons in Autonomic and Sensory ganglia
What are symptoms of Familial Dysautonomia?
-Abnormal sweating
-Unstable BP
-Poor muscle tone in GI tract
-Sensory loss (no taste buds)
What is Raynaud's disease?
A painful disease of the terminal arteries in the limbs
What are the 3 main symptoms of Horner's Syndrome?
-Ipsilateral ptosis (droop lid)
-Ipsilateral uneven pupils
-Half of face has no sweat
What is Autonomic Dysreflexia associated with?
Complete or incomplete spinal cord injury