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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. epidermis: hoof, highly keratinized, no vessels or nn
2. dermis: soft, sensitive
3. SQ tissue: digital and coronary cushions
4. ligaments and bones of coffin jt
5. blood vessels, nerves
6. flexor and extensor tendons
7. same for all limbs: only change plantar/ palmar, common digital extensor to long digital extensor
foot bruising
clinical problems:
foot bruised often as:
1. may remain in wet, putrid conditions for long periods
2. steps on hard, stony or uneven terrain
pyramidal dz
pyramidal dz:
- ringbone condition of extensor (pyramidal) process of distal phalanx
hoof wall
hoof wall :
- visible part when on ground
- coronet: jxn b/w hoof and skin
- basal border: on ground
1. toe
2. quarters
3. heel
- wall reflects to form bars, separated from frog by paracuneal grooves
- thickest part of wall, thins progressively heel-ward
- lateral has a thicker wall
hoof angles
hoof angles:
between dorsal surface and ground
1. FL: 45-50 degrees
2. HL: 50-55 degrees
wall substance
wall substance:
- tubules extending proximo-distally
- held together by amorphous, glue-like intertubular horny material
layers of wall
layers of wall:
1. stratum externum: periople and stratum tectorium
2. stratum medium
3. stratum internum
stratum externum
stratum externum:
- layer of wall
- very thin, tubular horny covering
1. periocle
2. stratum tectorium
- proximal part of stratum externum (hoof wall)
- soft, non-pigmented
- expands caudally over bulbs of heels
stratum tectorium
stratum tectorium:
- part of stratum externum (hoof wall)
- covers rest of wall
- impervious to water, smooth, glossy
- direction of growth of horny tubules: parallel, proximo-distal lines
- variations in hoof growth: horizontal smooth ridges
stratum medium
stratum medium:
- very thick, bulk of hoof wall
- tubules and intertubular horn
- may be pigmented outer layers: no known effect
stratum internum
stratum internum:
- innermost hoof wall
- NEVER pigmented
- coronary groove proximally
- bears openings accomodating papillae of underlying dermis
- inner surface: keratinized primary laminae, non- keratinized secondary laminae
- caudally: form laminae of bar
sandcrack, grascrack
1. sandcrack: crack in wall of hoof extending proximodistally
- will continue until worn down
2. grasscrack: less serious, split in wall extending proximally from basal border
- concave (normally), flaky outer surface
- angles: b/w walls and bars
- vertical horn tubules and intertubular horn
- wedge-shaped
- incompletely keratinized: 50% water vs sole 35% water so softer
- sulcus: separates med, lat crura
- apex: crura meeting cranially
- expands palmarly to join med/ lat bulbs of heels
- degenerative condition of frog
- esp moist or watery floor/ ground
navicular dz, quittor
1. navicular dz
2. quittor: suppurative, degeneration of cartilage
- ossified, rigid cartilages of distal phalanx (attached to palmar process of phalanx)
- normally: hyaline in young, fibrocartilage in adults
internal surfaces of frog
internal surfaces of frog:
1. spine (frog stay): embedded in digital cushion
- bordered by grooves which are surrounded by ridge of frog
2. holes for papillae of frog and sole dermis
- highly vascular, sensitive
- attaches hoof wall to internal foot structures
- produces various parts of wall by means of surface papillae (except laminar dermis)
dermis nourishment
dermis providing nutrients:
1. periploic
2. coronary
3. laminar
4. sole
5. frog
periploic dermis
periploic dermis:
- narrow, pale
- coronet below periople
- broadens, joins bulbs of heels
- blends with frog dermis
- papillae produces:
1. horn of periople -and-
2. stratum tectorium (externum)
coronary dermis
coronary dermis:
- thick, pigmented in dark hoofs
- coronary groove, distal to periploic dermis
- covers extensor t, cartilages of distal phalanx via SQ tissue of coronary cushion
- numerous surface papillae (~5 mm): fit into holes in strata medium and internum of coronary groove
production by coronary dermis
production by coronary dermis:
- most of wall
1. stratum germinativum produces stratum medium
2. cells of papillae produce tubular horn
3. interpapillar cells produce intertubular horn (glue)
coronary venous plexus
coronary venous plexus:
- deep in coronary cushion
- anastamoses with palmar/ plantar venous plexuses through foramina in cartilages
- will bleed profusely
laminar dermis
laminar dermis:
~ 600 primary laminae with several non-keratinized sec laminae
- colorless, interdigitate with laminae of wall and bars
- deep part blends with periosteum of distal phalanx: P from 2nd phalanx directed away from sole to wall
- terminal papillae: distal parts of dermal papillae, produces part of white line
- distal fringe of coronary papillae: produces wall laminae
- dorsal venous plexus deep
- extremely painful
- separation b/w sensitive and insensitive laminae
- new non-tubular horn produced due to stimulation of stratum geminativum
- 3rd phalanx rotated downward, pushing sole down (dropped sole)
- seedy toe: laminar dermis of toe separated from wall by space filled with amorphous, crumbly material produced by dermis
sole and frog dermis
sole and frog dermis:
- usually pigmented
- numerous papillae fit into hole in sole and frog
- stratum germinativum produces horn of sole and frog
1. sole dermis: attached to undersurface of 3rd phalanx
2. frog dermis:
- attached to digital cushion above
white line
white line:
- junction of wall and sole
- thin, soft, pale horn:
1. pigmented: produced by stratum germinativum overlying terminal papillae ( on distal parts of laminar dermis)
- fill space between non-pigmented
2. non-pigmented: deep layer of stratum medium and distal parts of horny laminae
palmar/ plantar venous plexus
palmar/ plantar venous plexus:
- deep in sole dermis and on surfaces of cartilages of the 3rd phalanx
dermis problems
dermis problems:
1. corn: general dermis injury
2. bruised sole: dermis at angle of sole
3. canker: chronic hypertrophy of frog dermis, usually due to infection
digital cushion
digital cushion:
- between cartilages of distal phalanx, overlying frog
- distal to 2nd phalanx and DDF tendon (overlies)
- caudally forms bulbs of heels
- fibroelastic tissue, may have scattered areas of cartilage
- pale yellow, fatty, some modified skin glands
- denser towards toe than at hells where it supports the bulbs
- thicker at heel, more spongy: concussion abs
coronary cushion
coronary cushion:
- elastic SQ tissue of coronary dermis
- attaches coronary dermis to DDF tendon and cartilages of distal phalanx
- blends with digital cushion at prox aspect of heel