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46 Cards in this Set

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Electronegativity
Measure of the attraction of an atom for an electron.
Polar covalent bonds
Formed btwn 2 atoms with DIFFERENT ectronegativities.
Nonpolar covalent bonds
The shared pair of electrons are attracted equally by 2 atoms.
Hydrogen bonds
Weak attraction btwn 2 atoms (one of which is hydrogen) bearing partial electrical charges.

heat breaks these bonds.
Chemical reactions
Occur when chemical bonds are formed or broken.
Collisions btwn molecules may result in formation of new compounds.
Water
pH
Acid base balance
What are some important biological molecules?
Cohesive and Adhesive
High Specific Heat
Thermal conductivity
High boiling point
High heat of vaporation
High freezing point
A good solvent
What are the characteristics of a water molecule?
Cohesion
Holding together of like substances
Hydrogen bonds hold H20 molecules tightly together -> surface tension.
Adhesion
Holding together of different substances -> capillary action.
High specific heat
Can absorb a lot of heat energy without its temp. increasing much, and must lose a lot of heat to lower its temp.
Thermal conductivity
Heat rapidly spreads. No hot spots.
High boiling point
changing from liquid to gas through kinetic energy.
High heat of vaporization
Prevents excess loss of water in lakes and ponds.
High freezing Point
Water is less dense when frozen.
Water expands upon freezing and floats.
Ice is a good insulator.
Preserves life in lakes and ponds.
A good solvent
Dissolves more different substances than any other known ligquid.
pH
Measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
Hydrogen ion
H+
Hydroxide ion
OH-
pH
acidic
basic
buffers
acidic
Increases the hydrogen ion conc. of a solution.
Basic
Decrease the hydrogen ion conc. of a solution.
buffers
minimizes changes in pH
acidosis
pH drops below 7.3

can cause coma.

below 6.9 is fatal.
alkalosis
pH goes above 7.5

can cause convulsions, cessation of respiration (apnea)

pH 7.8 causes tetany
Acid base balance
acidosis
alkalosis
26
How many elements are living organisms composed of?
Hydrogen
Carbon
Oxygen
Nitrogen
What are the most abdundant chemical elements in living organisms?
Organic compounds
Carbon containing compounds
4
elements
Carbon has __ electrons in its outer most shell and can easily bond with other carbon atoms as well as other _________.
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Proteins
4. Nucleic Acids
Name 4 macromolecules.
Macromolecules
large organic polymers
Polymerization Reactions

monomers
Link 2 or more small molecules to for large molecules with repeating structural units. Macromolecules are polymers consisting of many small repeating molecules. The smaller molecules are called __________.
Dehydration or condensation synthesis

water
energy
enzymes
Molecules are covalently linked, resulting in the formation of a molecule of _______. One monomer loses an (OH) and the other loses a (H).

This requires ________ and _________.
Hydrolysis

H20
condensation reaction in reverse.

breaks covalent bonds btwn monomers by the addition of ____. H bonds to one monomer and OH binds to the adjacent monomer.
Polysaccharides
consist of tens or hundreds of monosaccharides joined through dehydration synthesis. Starch, glycogen, dextran, and cellulose are polymers of glucose that are covalently bonded differently. Chitin is a polymer of 2 sugars repeating many times.
Lipids
Are the primary components of cell membranes.
Consists of C,H, and O.
Are nonpolar and insoluble in water.
Simple lipids

triglycerides
Called fats or __________ contain glycerol and fatty acids

formed by dehydration synthesis.

unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds in the fatty acids.
Complex lipids
contain C,H, and O + P, N, or S.

Membranes are made of phospholipid.
Macromolecules
large organic polymers
Polymerization Reactions

monomers
Link 2 or more small molecules to for large molecules with repeating structural units. Macromolecules are polymers consisting of many small repeating molecules. The smaller molecules are called __________.
Dehydration or condensation synthesis

water
energy
enzymes
Molecules are covalently linked, resulting in the formation of a molecule of _______. One monomer loses an (OH) and the other loses a (H).

This requires ________ and _________.
Hydrolysis

H20
condensation reaction in reverse.

breaks covalent bonds btwn monomers by the addition of ____. H bonds to one monomer and OH binds to the adjacent monomer.
Polysaccharides
consist of tens or hundreds of monosaccharides joined through dehydration synthesis. Starch, glycogen, dextran, and cellulose are polymers of glucose that are covalently bonded differently. Chitin is a polymer of 2 sugars repeating many times.
Lipids
Are the primary components of cell membranes.
Consists of C,H, and O.
Are nonpolar and insoluble in water.
Simple lipids

triglycerides
Called fats or __________ contain glycerol and fatty acids

formed by dehydration synthesis.

unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds in the fatty acids.
Complex lipids
contain C,H, and O + P, N, or S.

Membranes are made of phospholipid.