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15 Cards in this Set

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Objective

Describe the role of ADH in water regulation.
The posterior pituitary gland releases a hormone called vasopression, which raises blood pressure by constricting the blood vessels. The increased pressure helps compensate for a decreased volume of water. Vasopressin is also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH) because it enables the kidneys to reabsorb water from urine and therefore make the urine more concentrated.
Objective

Distinguish between the two types of thirst.
See study guide.
Objective

Identify the body's two mechanisms for detecting loss of blood volume.
Suppose you lose a significant amount of body fluid by bleeding, diarrhea, or sweating. Although osmotic pressure has not changed anywhere in the body, you need fluid. Your heart has trouble pumping blood up the head, and nutrients do not flow as easily as usual into the cells. Your body detects this loss of volume in two ways:

1. Receptors in the veins signal the kidneys to release rennin, which in turn produces angiotensin II—a substance that constricts the blood vessels, compensating for the drop in blood pressure.

2. When angiontensin II reaches the brain, it stimulates neurons in the subfornical area, which detect lower blood volume.
Objective

Describe the mechanism that gives rise to sodium hunger.
When sodium reserves are low, the adrenal glands secrete aldosterone, which causes the kidneys, salivary glands, and sweat glands to retain salt.
vasopressin
Hormone that raises blood pressure by constricting the blood vessels
antidiuretic hormone
Enables the kidneys to reabsorb water from urine and therefore make the urine more concentrated
osmotic pressure
The tendency of water to flow across a semipermeable membrane from the area of low solute concentration to the area of higher concentration
osmotic thirst
Type of thirst caused by consuming excessive amounts of salt, which results in a higher concentration of solutes in the extracellular fluid; osmotic pressure draws water from the cells into the extracellular fluid; certain neurons detect their own loss of water and then trigger osmotic thirst
OVLT
Area important for detecting osmotic pressure and salt content of blood
supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus
Parts of the hypothalamus that control the rate at which the posterior pituitary release vasopressin
lateral preoptic area
Area that controls drinking
angiotension II
Hormone that constricts the blood vessels, thus compensating for the drop in blood pressure
hypovolemic thirst
Thirst based on low blood volume
sodium-specific hunger
Strong craving for salty tastes; caused by insufficient salt intake
aldosterone
Hormone released by the adrenal glands that causes the kidneys, salivary glands, and sweat glands to retain salt