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29 Cards in this Set

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True shape of earth: slightly flattened sphere, due to earth's rotation
Oblate Spheroid
Imaginary straight line which runs through the earth from the North Pole to the South Pole
Axis
All the earth's water
Hydrosphere
Percentage of earth's water which is salty
97%
Layer of gases surrounding the earth
Atmosphere
What are the two most abundant gases in atmosphere? What percent of the atmosphere are each?
78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen
Thin, solid outermost zone of the earth; makes up 1% of earth's mass
Crust
Crust underlying world's oceans; thin, only 5-10 km thick
Oceanic
Crust underlying earth's continents. Varies 32-70 km in thickness - thickest under mountains
Continental
Zone of rock nearly 2870 km thick which lies below the earth's outermost layer; divided into upper and lower regions, this zone makes up 2/3 of the earth's mass
Mantle
This is the uppermost portion of the mantle, and TOGETHER WITH THE CRUST ON TOP OF IT - forms a rigid layer which is 65-100 km thick
Lithosphere
Below the _________________________ (#14) this layer is about 200 km thick. It is SOLID ROCK! but because of enormous heat and pressure, this layer flows like putty
Asthenosphere
The term which describes the ability of a solid to flow
Plasticity
Forms the center of the earth, divided into inner and outer sections - made mostly of iron, this layer makes up 1/3 of the earth's mass.
Core
Dense layer of liquid iron about 2,190 km thick
Outer Core
Dense solid about 2,680 km diameter at the very center of the earth - mostly iron
Inner Core
Vibrations which originate at or near earth's surface due to earthquake or explosion and move through the earth 20
Seismic Waves
Faster of two seismic wave types; they can move through solid, liquid or gas
P Waves
Slower of two seismic wave types; they can only move through solid material
S Waves
Seismic waves travel ___________ through material which is more dense/rigid
Faster
Short for Mohorovocic Discontinuity, this is the boundary between the crust and the mantle. Discovered because seismic waves speed up as they leave the less dense crust and enter the more dense mantle.
Moho
Locations on the earth more than 103 degrees from earthquake/explosion causing seismic waves where no secondary waves are felt, due to the fact that they cannot get through the liquid outer core of the earth
S Wave Shadow Zone
Locations on the earth more than 103 degrees but less than 143 degrees from earthquake/explosion causing seismic waves where no primary waves are felt, due to the fact that the waves bend/change direction as they enter layers of different density as they move through the earth's interior
P Wave Shadow Zone
Region of space (which extends out past the atmosphere!) affected by the earth's magnetic field
Magnetosphere
Motions within this layer of the earth are thought to be responsible for the creation of earth's magnetic field
Liquid Iron Outer Core
Force of attraction which exists between all matter in the universe - the most important thing you will learn about all year. It's the LAW!
Gravity
The amount of matter in an object
Mass
The amount of gravity force exerted on a mass
Weight
"The amount of gravitational attraction between two objects depends upon: 1) the masses of the two objects, and 2) the distance between the two objects"
THIS DEFINITION IS SOOOOOOOO IMPORTANT. KNOW IT. KNOW IT. KNOW IT!!!! And be able to APPLY it.
Law of Gravitation