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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Observation
fact
Hypothesis
possible explanation
Scientific Theory
generalization explaining a large number of different observations
Ex: Plate tectonics, evolution
Scientific Law
no deviation have been observed after many tests
Ex: Law of Gravity, Law of Conservation of energy
Law of Gravity
F=m1m2/r2
4 closed systems
atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere
Experiment
Observations- systematic and purposeful
controlled
Conclusion
which hypothesis do the results best support
what problems were their in doing the experiment
what new questions arrise from these observations
What is a system?
set of components that work together
arbitrary boundaries set by investigator
open, closed, isolated systems
exchange matter and energy with surroundings; no exchange of matter bt can exchange energy; no exchange of matter or energy
Conservation equation
Input=Output+change in storage
Steady state
Change in storage
Input=Output
Transient state
Input does not equal output
resident time
Average amount of time a unit of matter stays in a reservoir
T1=M/F
Feedback in systems
feedback occurs when the output of the system influences the input to the system
positive feedback
the output of the system enhances the performance
negative feedback
slows the performance, decreasing the output
Atomic #
# of protons in nucleus of atom
Atomic weight
# of protons plus neutrons
Polar molecule
Hydrogen bonding between molecules
Ions
atoms that have too many or too few electrons(-) relative to the #of protons(+)
Complex ions
Group of atoms that together have a mismatch between electrons and protons
Endothermic reaction
absorb energy as the reaction progresses
Exothermic
give off energy as the reaction progresses
Forms of chemical reactions
Mechanical, themal (heat), electrical, Radiant (electromagnetic)
Population density equation
(R) rate=(Births-deaths)+(immigration-emigration)
Intrinsic rate (biotic potential)
age at which reproduction begins
generation time
number of offspring
environmental resistance
biotic (disease, competition for resources)
abiotic (climate, natural disaster)
Population change equation
(Birth+immigration)-(death+emigration)
crude birth rate
#of births/1000 per year
crude death rate
#deaths/1000 per year
birth rate %
CBR/10= birth rate %
fertlity rate
# of children born per woman
causes of fertility rate
womens education
infant mortality
religion
governmental restriction
causes of death rate
medical care
natural disaster
disease
Green revolution
industrialization of agriculture
high inputs of energy
mechanization
fertilization
SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE
eating lower on the food chain (organic farming)
Habitat
a place where you live; has what you need
3 sources of energy
sun (solar energy)
earths internal heat (radioactivity)
Gravitational energy (tides)
HEAT TRANSFER
radiation, conduction, advection
Imports of fossil fuel use
Exploration and extraction
Transport and processing
Combustion and Use
Disposal and residual wastes
Combustion and use of coal
Air pollution
Particulate matter (fly ash)
Sulfur dioxide
Carbon monoxide
Disposal of residual wastes from coal
Ash sludge
carbon monoxide