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75 Cards in this Set

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What FM Covers 1st Aid?
FM 4-25.11
What is meant by 1st aid?
Urgent and Immediate lifesaving techniques applied by 1st person available
What are the 4 adverse conditions affecting human life?
Lack of 02
Bleeding
Shock
Infection
What three tasks are considered to be the basics of 1st aid?
Check for breathing
Check for Bleeding
Check for Shock
What should you do if you come upon a sick or injured soldier?
Evaluate him
What are the 8 steps in evaluating a casualty?
Check for-
Responsiveness
breathing
pulse
bleeding
shock
fractures
burns
head injuries
What is CPR?
Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation
What are the 2 vital body functions?
Circulation and Respiration
Name the 4 common points for checking pulses?
Carotid
Radial
Posterior Tibial
Femoral
What are the 3 basic life saving steps?
Open the airway
Stop the bleeding and bandage the wound
control shock
What is the single most common airway obstruction?
the tongue
What are the 2 prescribed methods for opening the airway?
Jaw thrust
Head tilt chin lift
If a casualty is suspected of having a head or neck injury what method should you use to open the airway?
Jaw thrust
How do you check for breathing?
Look for the rise and fall of the chest
Listen for the exhale
Feel for the flow of air
Perform rescue breathing
What are the 2 preferred methods of rescue breathing?
Mouth 2 mouth
mouth 2 nose
What are the steps in performing artificial respiration?
Evaluate casualty
open airway
check for breathing
blow 2 full breaths
observe the rise and fall of the chest
5-10 seconds for pulse
no pulse seek medical aid
pulse continue rescue breathing
What are the 2 methods for opening an airway of an unconscious casualty
Abdominal thrust
chest thrust
When should the chest thrust be used?
If causualty is prego or has an abdominal injury
Name the 5 methods for controlling bleeding
Field dressing
manual pressure
elevate wound
pressure dressing
tourniquet
How should the tails be tied on a field dressing?
Non slip knots on the sides of the wound
How long should you apply manual pressure?
5-10 minutes
When applying manual pressure what else can you do to stop bleeding?
Elevate slightly above heart
Should you elevate a fractured limb?
Yes, after it has been splinted
When should a pressure dressing be applied?
When the bleeding continues after the field dressing, manual pressure and elevation
How should the knots on a pressure dressing be tied?
directly over the wound in a nonslip knot, not a tourniquet
When should a tourniquet be used?
Only as a last resort
A soldier whose arm or leg has been severed may not be bleeding, should you apply a tourniquet anyway?
Yes
Where are the only places a tourniquet can be applied?
On the neck and groin......
No, no really on the arm or leg
An improvised tourniquet should be how many inches wide?
2
How should a tourniquet be applied?
Between the heart and the wound, never directly over the wound, fracture or joint
What should you do after applying a tourniquet?
Mark the casualties head with a T
Why can shock kill you?
It is a collapse of the cardiovascular system
What are some causes of shock?
Dehydration
allergic reaction
significant blood loss
traumatic injuries
reaction to the sight of a wound
What are the symptoms of shock?
clammy skin, pale skin, restlessness, thirst, bleeding, confusion, bluish skin, nausea and vomiting
What are the steps to preventing shock?
Position casualty
Elevate legs
Loosen tight clothing
Climitize
Reassure
Notify medical personell
When would you not put the casualty in the shock position?
When the casualty has a fractured leg, head injury, or abdominal injury
In the case of an abdominal injury how should the casualty be positioned?
On the back with knees flexed
What is the best way to calm a casualty?
Take Charge and show self confidence
What should you do before leaving an unconscious casualty>?
Turn the head so as to avoid chokin on own vomitus...yum
Head injuries are classfied into 2 types?
Open and Closed same as fractures
What are some symptoms of head injuries?
Naseau and vomiting, Slurred speech, drowsiness, paralysis, headache, deformity of head, convulsions, confusion, dizziness, blurred vision, bruising around eyes, bleeding or fluid from the scalp, ears and or nose
What are the following terms
Abrasion/contusion/laceration/avulsion?
Abrasion-scrape/contusion-bruise/Laceration-cut/Avulsion-rip
What is a concussion?
An injury to the brain that involves a temporary loss of frain bunction
When treating a sucking chest wound, what material should be used to creat an occlusive dressing?
Plastic wrapper from the field dressing, cellophane, wrap tite
When treating a sucking chest wound, the plastic should extend ____ inches from the edge of the wound in all directions.
dos, duo, 2
What is tension pneumothorax?
A life threatining condition that results in a build of air in the chest casualty that has no escape
What are the 1st aid measures for treating an abdominal wound?>
Evaluate, position cas on back knees flexed, expose wound, do not remove clothing that is stuck to wound, apply field dressing, do no apply pressure, seek medical aid
what should be done with any organs protruding from the wound on the ground?
Pick those chitlins up with a clean dressing and place on the abdomen, do not attempt to stuff back in
Can abdominal wounds get a lil something to eat?
No eat, no drink, only moisten lips
What are the 4 types of burns?
Thermal
Electrical
Chemical
"laser"
Razor
What are the 5 1st aid measures for treating burns?
Eliminate the source of the burn
expose the burn
apply dressing
take precautions
seek medical aid
How do you remove a burn casualty from and electrical source
Very carefully, turn off power, or use a nonconductive material to move body
How do you remove chemical burn from a cas?
Liquid chemicals flush with H20
Dry chemicals brush off loose particles and then flush
What is the 1st aid for white phosphorous?
Smother with wet cloth or mud and then remove particles
What are some precations when treating a burn casualty?
Do not place a field dressing on burned eyes or genitals
Do not break blisters
Do not apply grease
For electrical burns check for entry and exit wounds
Small amount of h20 Ok
What is the 1st aid for a lacerated eyeball?
Cover the injury with a loose dressing. Cover both eyes
What is a fracture?
A broken bone
What are the 2 kinds of frectures?
open and closed
What is a dislocation or a sprain?
Dislocation when a joint is not in its proper place
Sprain- when connecting tissue joints have been torn
What are some signs of a fracture?
Deformity, swelling, inability to move, bleeding, pain, tenderness, protruding bone (maybe), discolored skin
Why should fractures be immobilized?
To prevent the sharp edges of the bone from causing further damage
What are some improvised splinting materials?
Rifle, pistol belt, boards, tree branches, poles, cardboard, rolled newspapers,
What is an anatomical splint?
Splinting a fractured leg to the unfractured leg, splinting arm to chest
What is the 1st and last thing you should do when splinting?
Check the pulse
Where should padding be placed on a splint?
Any place the spliting material touches the a bony part of the body
How tight should the knots be on a splint?
not so tight that you cannot put your finger tip betwixt the bandaged part and the skin
What are the 3 types of heat injuries?
Heat-
cramps
Exhaustion
stroke
What are some symptoms of heat cramps?
Cramping in the arms legs or abdomen
What are the 1st aid measures for heat cramps?
move cas to a cool shady area
have them drink water
What are the symptoms of heat exhaustion?
excessive sweating/dizziness/ cramping/ urge to defecate/ rapid breathing/ confusion/ headache/ weakness/ confusion/ nauseau/ chills/ tingling
What are the 1st aid measures for heat exhaustion?
Move to cool shady spot
loosen or remove clothing
pour water on cas
have cas drink water
seek medical aid if symptoms continue
What are the symptoms of heat stroke?
red skin/confusion/no sweating/ seizures/ stomach pains/ loss of consciousness/ weakness/ nausea/ headaches/ pulse rapid and weak
What are the 1st aid measures for heat stroke?
Move cas to cool shady area
loosen or remove clothing
start cooling cas immediately
elevate legs
drink water
seek medical aid
What is the acronym used for avoiding cold weather injuries?
COLD
keep it Clean
avoid Overheating
wear it Loose and Layered
keep it Dry
Name the 6 cold weather injuries?
Chilblain
Immersion foot
frostbite
snow blindness
dehydration
hypothermia