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22 Cards in this Set

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How does the reformation reflect the effects of changes in Europe?
1) The focus of the Renaissance on reason is exemplified in Luther&Lorenzo Valla. Ppl began questioning church practices and their purpose.
2) the new technology (the printing press) allowed for the spread of ideas and took the power away from the pope to be the sole interpreter of the bible
1)How did the Renaissance affect Europe?
2)what new invention allowed for the spread of information at this time?
At this time many ppl began writing books about church corruption. Can you think of 3 problems the church was accused of?
1)pluralism (clergy holding several church offices at one) was a major problem.
2)popes during this time lived like secular princes. For instance, some popes wrote love stories while Pope Alexander VI publicly acknowledged his mistress and kids
3)bishops were paid by the church for their services to the state. So why would they do God's work if they had been hired for another reason
1)If Albert had not wanted to become the archbishop of Mainz (in addition to being
bishop in two other church) Luther might not have attacked the church for indulgences.
2)The pope was supposed to be the guy everyone looked up to for relgious guidance. Did he accurately represent this idea of the perfect pope?
3) think of who owned the majority of the wealth at this time? Who was supposed to pay to the ppl who aided the state?
Were there any attempts to stop/reduce the corruption in the church?
if yes or no give 2 reasons as to why
Altho attempts at reforming the church were weak they at least tried
1)Cardinal Francisco Cisneros (1436-1517)visited relgious houses to make sure rules were being enforced and to maintain education standards.
2)Pope Julius II tried summon an ecumenical council (universal council)which met in Rome from 1512-1517. The end result of this meeting was useless since the bishops put all the blame and pressure to reform on the papacy (and they did next to nothing).
1) what cardinal tried to aid the training of diocesan clergy?
What was the point of getting an indulgence? What did the church say to convince ppl to buy indulgences?
3) answers
1) By using indulgenes the church showed that god was merciful but just.
2)The church said that Christ and their saints had established a treasury of merits that only the church (due to its special religious relationship with God) could tap into.
3) The indulgences showed that the church had the power to forgve sinners.
1)what did the indulgences show abt God?
2)who had a special treasury of merits?
3)who on this physical earth (not God or Jesus) could forgive sinners?
After Luther started complaining abt indulgences (he wrote to Pope Leo X and posted his 95 Theses)why didn't Albert of Hohenzollern just ask Tetzel to stop selling indulgences?
Keep in mind Albert of Hohenzollern was selling indulgences to pay both the church (for letting him practice pluralism) and the Fugger family (they lent him the omoney he needed to pay for his papal dispensation). If Albert had ordered Tetzel to stop how would he have gotten the money? Also, if
When Luther posted his 95 Theses Pope Leo X claimed that he was not interested in a squabble among monks why would Albert, an archbishop, have cared.
1) While the ppl thought they getting salvation the church received what from them?
2) If you had to rate Martin Luther 1-10 on the social hierarchy scale what would you give him?
At first Pope Leo X did not care about Luther. What assembly or gathering of princes took place in 1521 that reflected the impact of Luther's ideas?
In 1521 Charles V held his first diet,assembly of the estates. It was called the Diet of Worms and Luther was summoned to renounce his views and works. He said that he would only be convinced by scripture or reason to recant. he was declared an outlaw however, Frederick the elector of Saxony (and other princes) protected him. While he was in seclusion he translated the Bible into German
1) a diet was the assembly of German princes. This one in particular was lead by Charles V the holy roman emperor.
Did luther believe that good works guaranteed salvation? If yes or no explain ur answer
No, the Catholics were the ones who believed that good works and faith meant salvation. Luther thought that a person could only by saved through faith
Think of how his mentor John Staupitz. What chapter of the Bible (from the apostles)did Staupitz tell Luther to study?
What reasoning did luther use to reject the power of the pope?
2 answers
1)If a person could be saved thru faith alone then they did not need the pope.
2)also, Luther said that religious authority resided in the Bible and the interpretation in a person's conscience.
What catholic dogma did luther reject? This belief pertains to the eucharist
The Catholics believe in transubstantion. This means that the wine and bread is transformed into christ's body. Luther believed in consubstantiation that Jesus was somehow present in the wine and bread.
1)think of the differences the colloquy of Marburg failed to resolve in 1529.
2) transforming of everyday objects into Christ's body
The peasants of 1525 revolted. What tract did Luther publish in 1520 that the peasants used to justify their revolt? did this monk aim to inspire a rebellion?
The peasants misinterpreted Luther's On Christian Liberty (published in 1520). Luther definitely did not intend to inspire rebellion. Initially he supported the peasants as seen in An Admonition to Peace(1525). however, he was disgusted by their violence and wrote his tract Against he Murderous, Thieving Hordes of theh Peasants where he advocated violence against rebels.
-he wrote a tract in 1525 that resulted in the deaths of 75,000 peasants.
Judging from Luther's tract Against teh Murderous, thieving Hordes of the Peasants can it be said that the peasants were solely violent?
Altho Luther made the peasants seem super evil one must keep in mind that the peasants wrote the Twelve articles in 1525. This contained all their grievances(common lands taken away, lords had imposed new rents and unjust death duties)
In 1525 Swabian peasants met at Memmingen and wrote the twelve articles. What could this document have talked abt?
Charles V was the Holy Roman Emperor shouldn't he have kept Luther under control. why didnt he?
Charles V owned a vast amount of land. He was too busy aiding his brother, Ferdinand, against the Turks who besieged Vienna in 1529. He also fought wars against the French Protestants. and he didnt have the resources to oppose protestantism effectively
Ok Charles V might have been too busy to save Catholicism but what about the German princes? couldnt they helped?
After Luther wrote An Appeal to the Christian Nobility(he urged the princes to confiscate church lands) u can bet that they were on his side. The church owned one-quarter of all the land w/in the holy roman empire who wouldnt support the guy who said take it under the pretext of reforming religion.
what three important men did Luther influence?
knox(1505?-1572), Calvin (1509-1564) and Zwingli (1484-1531)
What man spread the reformation to Switzerland? And how was he different from Luther
He started the reformation in Zurich. He rejected ALL sacraments, unlike Luther. for the him the Eucharist or the Last supper only memorialized Christ's death. He died leading a battle gainst Swiss Catholic Cantons
This man was born in Switzerland unlike the founder of the Geneva theocracy.
-Luther rejected only 4 sacraments
-he didnt believe in consubstantiation
When Great Britain said "up" the Irish yelled "down!" Taking this into consideration, how did the Iris react when their English landlords became Protestants?
In defiance of their rich English lords the Irish remained stout Catholics.
Who was the man that worked with Calvin in Geneva and brought reform to Scotland?
John Knox (1505?-1572) determined the structure of the Scottish church after calvin's. He established the Presbyterian Church of Scot land. His book of Common Order (1564)became the liturgical directory for the church.
Charles V is known as the last medieval emperor because he saw it as his duty to maintain the religious and political unity of Christendom. What happened to change this?
In 1555 the Peace of Augsburg allowed for a region to follow their ruler's religion (even if he was lutheran). This destroyed charles V's dream of unifying everyone under 1 religion.
the common thought was that it was impossible for two different religions to coincide in peace in one region/country. This goes along with Charles V and his "medieval" dream
who wrote the Institutes of the Christian Religion? and in what year was it published
John Calvin wrote the Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536
Did Protestantism aid in unifying Germany?
no! The goal of the French at this time was to keep the Germans politically divided. Protestantism promoted political fragmentation since the princes care more about gaining land than actually reforming.
Being a monk meant you were high on the moral hierarchy. did Luther feel this way?
After becoming a monk Luther continued to doubt God. He did not feel that by becoming a monk u were automatically hi in the moral hierarchy. He even said that all occupations can be used to exalt God not just monasticism.
what did the abolition of the monasteries result in?
Reforms stressed that clerical promiscuity would reduce if celibacy was discontinued. Also, the home was exalted as the special domain of the wife where gentler virtues where exercised.
think of social changes...fewer religious men having celibacy forced on them