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30 Cards in this Set

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What is the origin of adult stem cells?
Adults
Potential of ASCs:
multipotent
3 subcategories of ASCs:
1. Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs)
2. Hematopoietic Stem cells
3. Mesenchymal stem cells
Where do all 3 subcategores of ASCs arise?
In the bone marrow
What type of ASC does not arise in the bone marrow?
Restricted stem cells
How are circulating progenitor cells (EPCs) isolated from peripheral blood?
Via their expression of CD34
What can EPCs do?
Microvascularize the heart with new endothelial cells, and maybe re-muscularize it.
Do EPCs generate cardiomycoytes?
Hardly
What is the benefit of intravenous EPC transplants?
Improved cardiac function
What will Endothelial Progenitor cells be used to treat probably?
Ischemia
What does "c-kit+/lin-" mean?
c-kit is a marker of stemness
lin- means not differentiated to a specific cell lineage yet
What do HSCs hematopoietic stem cells do?
Revascularie the heart
What will intra-coronary injection of LARGE NUMBERS of unfractionated stem cells achieve?
An increased ejection fraction by 6-14%
What do mesenchymal stem cells have the capacity to do?
Become bone cartilage fat or endothelial cells - MULTIPOTENTIAL
Is there any evidence of cardiac myocyte regeneration when adult stem cells are autologously transplanted?
no
What is the mode of Mesenchymal stem cell therapy?
1. Inject MSCs into vascular system
2. MSCs migrate to bone marrow
3. Experimentally injure animal lung w/ bleomycin
4. MSCs migrate from BM to lung to initiate repair.
4 strengths of adult stem cells:
1. Zooneses minimized
2. Tumor transmission minimized
3. Able to perform autologous transplant obviates immune rejection
4. Minimal ethical concerns
2 weaknesses of ASCs:
-Limited differentiation ability
-May just fuse with existing cells instead of establishing new tissue
What are Restricted-Potential Adult Stem Cells?
Stem cells that are stored in niches within the individual tissue to be regenerated.
What are 3 confirmed sites of known restricted ASCs?
-Skin
-Small intestine
-Skeletal muscle
What are 3 possible sites of niches?
Brain heart and liver
Where is the skeletal muscle niche for ASCs?
Between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma.
What is the potential of these restricted ASCs?
UNIpotential - can only become one thing.
Where are the stem cells in the skin?
In the basal layer of the dermis
How often does the epidermis turn over?
Every two weeks
How many times do the basal layer cells divide during the 2 weeks of epidermal regeneration?
4-6 times
What is the exact site of the skin stem cells?
The bulge of the hair follicle root sheath.
Where are stem cells in the intestine?
In the crypts
What are the strengths of Restricted ASCs?
-Never form tumors
-same as other adult stem cells
What is the main weakness of restricted potential ASCs?
Its difficult to isolate them from niches.