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107 Cards in this Set

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A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be un-American and socialistic; he helped to increase the Red Scare; he was nicknamed the "Fighting Quaker" until a bomb destroyed his home; he then had a nervous breakdown and became known as the "Quaking Fighter."
John Dewey
He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."
John T. Scopes
In 1925 he was indicted for teaching evolution in Tennessee. His trial was watched all over the country. This trial represented the Fundamentalist vs the Modernalist. In the outcome he was only fined $100.00 dollars. While it seemed the Fundamentalists had won, the trial made them look bad.
William Jennings Bryan
Joined the prosecution in the " Monkey Trials" (Scopes Trial) against the teachings of evolution in schools, he was supposed to be an expert on the Bible, but was made to look silly in the case and died soon afterward
Clarence Darrow
A famed criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution. He caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when he questioned Bryan about the Bible.
Andrew Mellon
He was the Secretary of the Treasury during the Harding Administration. He felt it was best to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He believed in trickle down economics. (Hamiltonian economics)
Bruce Barton
A founder of the "new profession" of advertising, which used the persuasion ploy, seduction, and sexual suggestion. He was a prominent New York partner in a Madison Avenue firm. He published a best seller in 1925, The Man Nobody Knows, suggesting that Jesus Christ was the greatest ad man of all time. He even praised Christ's "executive ability." He encouraged any advertising man to read the parables of Jesus.
Henry Ford
He made assembly line production more efficient in his Rouge River plant near Detroit- a finished car would come out every 10 seconds. He helped to make the car inexpensive so more Americans could buy them.
Frederick W. Taylor
He was an engineer, an inventor, and a tennis player. He sought to eliminate wasted motion. Famous for scientific-management especially time-management studies.
Margaret Sanger
She organized a birth-control movement which openly championed the use of contraceptives in the 1920's.
Sigmund Freud
The Viennese physician that believed sexual repression was responsible for a variety of nervous and emotional diseases. He argued that health demanded sexual gratification and liberation. His writings seemed to justify the new sexual frankness of the 1920s.
H. L. Mencken
He was a patron to many young writers in the 1920's. He criticized many subjects like the middle class, democracy, marrige and patriotism in his monthly AMERICAN MERCURY.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
He belonged to the Lost Generation of Writers. He wrote the famous novel "The Great Gatsby" which explored the glamour and cruelty of an achievement-oriented society.
Ernest Hemingway
He fought in Italy in 1917. He later became a famous author who wrote "The Sun Also Rises" (about American expatriates in Europe) and "A Farewell to Arms." In the 1920's he became upset with the idealism of America versus the realism he saw in World War I. He was very distraught, and in 1961 he shot himself in the head.
Sinclair Lewis
He was the chief chronicler of midwestern life. He was a master of satire and wrote "Main Street" in 1920. Then he wrote "Babbit" which describe a materialistic middle-class American businessman.
William Faulkner
He was a writer. In 1926 he wrote a bitter war novel called "Soldier's Pay". He also wrote many other powerful books about the lives of Southerners during the Civil War.
Buying on Margin
This kind of buying stocks was usually only used by poor and middle class people. They would buy the stock, but only pay for part of it and borrow money from the stockbrokers to pay the rest. Then when they sold the stock for a higher price, they would pay the broker off and keep the rest of the profit. This practice led to the great depression, because the banks couldn't get their money back when the stock market crashed.
Red Scare
This erupted in the early 1920's. The American public was scared that communism would come into the US. Left-winged supporters were suspected. This fear of communism helped businessman who used it to stop labor strikes.
Sacco and Vanzetti Case
Nicola Sacco was a shoe-factory worker and Bartholomew Vanzetti was a fish peddler. They were both convicted of murdering a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard in 1921. They were supported by Liberals and Radicals. The case lasted 6 years and resulted in execution based on weak evidence. Mainly because Americans were zenophobic (afraid of foreigners).
Ku Klux Klan
In the 1920s this group was very anti-foreign. It was against all groups which did not have a protestant background. They were most prevelant in the midwest and the south. They eventually became less popular when Klan officials were caught embezzling money.
Emergency Quota Act 1921
This law restricted immigration to 3% of each nationality that was in the United States in 1910.
Immigration Quota Act 1924
This law was passed in 1924--cut quotas for foreigners from 3 % to 2% of the total number of immigrants in 1890--purpose was to freeze America's existing racial composition (which was largely Northern European) --prevented Japanese from immigrating, causing outrage in Japan.
Volstead Act
This law implemented the 18th Admendment. It established illegal alcohol at above .5%.
Fundamentalism
A movement that pushed that the teachings of Darwin were destroying faith in God and the Bible. It consisted of the old-time religionists who didn’t want to conform to modern science.
Modernists
Believed that God was a "good guy" and the universe a pretty chummy place; these were the people who believed in God but were also able to except evolution and modern science
Flappers
The dynamic 1920's revealed women notorious for their risky attire and dance styles. Referred to as "wild abandons," these girls exemplified the new sexually frank generation.
“Birth of a Nation”
The first full-length feature film was created by D. W. Griffth. The film glorified the KKK of the Reconstruction era.
Theodore Dreiser
He wrote An American Tragedy and dealt with the same theme of the glamour and cruelty of an achievement-oriented society.
"Scarface" Al Capone
He was a mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits; his illegal actiities convey the failure of prohibition in the 20's.
Charles Lindbergh
He was an American aviator and engineer. On May 20, 1927, he was the first person to make a non-stop solo flight across the Atlantic. Flying in his single engine plane, Spirit of St. Louis, he flew from New York Cit to Paris. Gangsters kidnapped his baby son, shocking the nation.
Lindbergh Law
Allowed the death penalty to certain cases of interstate abduction.
Babe Ruth
He was the most popular player in the history of baseball. He began in 1914 on the Baltimore team of the International League.
Jack Depsey
He was an American professional boxer who became a world heavyweight champion in 1919 but lost the title in 1926.
The "Gasoline Age"
The automobile brought 6 million ppl to new jobs and took over the railraod as the king of transportation. New roads were constructed, gasoline boomed, standard of living ross greatly. Cars went from a luxury to a necessity. Less attractive cities lost population rapidly. Over 1 million ppl died from accidents from the automobile. The cars brouth adventure, exitment, and pleasur.
The Wright Brothers
They flew the first airplane on December 17, 1903 for 12 seconds over a distance of 120n feet.
Guglielmo Marconi
In the 1890s, he had already invented wireless telegraphy and his invention was used for long distance communication in the Great War.
KDKA Radio Station
This was the first succesfull voice carrying radio station that started to broadcast on Nov. 2, 1920 in Pittsburgh. It covered President Harding's election and landslide victory.
Handy "Jelly Roll" Morton and Joseph King Oliver
Both of these black men were credited for giving birth to the rythmic Jazz music with the saxaphone becoming the trumpet of the new era.
Langston Hughes
A black poet who is most famous for his work "The Weary Blues."
Marcus Garvey
Black poloician and leader who created the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
Sherwood Anderson
He wrote "Winesburg, Ohio" and wrote about small town life.
T.S. Eliot
She was a famous poet who wrote "The Wasted Land" Which won a Nobel Prize. It was written in 1922 and expressed Eliot's conception of the contrast between modern society and sociaties from the past. Became the most discusseed literary work of the time.
Lindbergh Law
Allowed the death penalty to certain cases of interstate abduction.
Babe Ruth
He was the most popular player in the history of baseball. He began in 1914 on the Baltimore team of the International League.
Jack Depsey
He was an American professional boxer who became a world heavyweight champion in 1919 but lost the title in 1926.
The "Gasoline Age"
The automobile brought 6 million ppl to new jobs and took over the railraod as the king of transportation. New roads were constructed, gasoline boomed, standard of living ross greatly. Cars went from a luxury to a necessity. Less attractive cities lost population rapidly. Over 1 million ppl died from accidents from the automobile. The cars brouth adventure, exitment, and pleasur.
The Wright Brothers
They flew the first airplane on December 17, 1903 for 12 seconds over a distance of 120n feet.
Guglielmo Marconi
In the 1890s, he had already invented wireless telegraphy and his invention was used for long distance communication in the Great War.
KDKA Radio Station
This was the first succesfull voice carrying radio station that started to broadcast on Nov. 2, 1920 in Pittsburgh. It covered President Harding's election and landslide victory.
Handy "Jelly Roll" Morton and Joseph King Oliver
Both of these black men were credited for giving birth to the rythmic Jazz music with the saxaphone becoming the trumpet of the new era.
Langston Hughes
A black poet who is most famous for his work "The Weary Blues."
Marcus Garvey
Black poloician and leader who created the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
Sherwood Anderson
He wrote "Winesburg, Ohio" and wrote about small town life.
T.S. Eliot
She was a famous poet who wrote "The Wasted Land" Which won a Nobel Prize. It was written in 1922 and expressed Eliot's conception of the contrast between modern society and sociaties from the past. Became the most discusseed literary work of the time.
Warren G. Harding
He was one of the best liked men of the generation, he was spineless and a bad judge of character. He is compared to Grant because his term in office was scandalous. Many corporations could expand, antitrust laws were ignored, and he achieved disarmament with the Open Door in China. The tariff increased also. He died on August 2, 1923 of pneumonia and thrombosis while making speeches.
Charles Evan Hughes
He was the Republican governor of New York who ran for the presidency in 1916. He lost to Wilson. He was a strong reformer who gained his national fame as an investigator of malpractices in gas and insurance companies. In 1921 he became Harding's Secretary of State. He called together the major powers to the Washington Disarmament Conference in 1921.
Andrew Mellon
He was the Secretary of the Treasury during the 1920s and under Harding that had the theory that high taxes forced the rich to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He had followers in his theory called Mellonites. He helped engineer a series of tax reductions and reduced national debt by $10 billion. He was accused of indirectly encouraging the bull market and starting the descent into the stock market crash. Some people, however, believed he was the "greatest secretary of treasury since Hamilton." He used "trickle-down" economics.
Herbert Hoover
The president of the United States from 1929 to 1932 He was a republican who ran on a campaign of prohibition and prosperity. The early years of his presidency brought about a great deal of prosperity for the United States. Many people blamed him for the stock market crash.
Albert B. Fall
He was Secretery of the Interior during Harding's administration, and was a scheming anti-conservationist. He was convicted of leasing naval oil reserves and collecting bribes, which was called the Tea Pot Dome scandal.
Harry M. Daugherty
Attorney General during the 1922 strike against the Railroad Labor Board. The strike ended when he stopped the strikers in one of the most sweeping injunctions in American history. He was a member of Harding's Ohio Gang. He was accused of the illegal sale of pardons and liquor permits. He was forced to resign. He was tried but a jury failed to convict him.
Charles R. Forbes
In 1923 he resigned as head of the Veteran's Bureau. He swindled $200 million from the government in building Veteran's hospitals. He was sentenced to two years in the penitentiary. This was part of the Harding scandal and the "Ohio gang"
Calvin Coolidge
He became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.
John W. Davis
He was the Democratic convention nominee in 1924 against Coolidge. He was a wealthy lawyer connected with J.P. Morgan and Company. Coolidge easily defeated him.
Robert La Follette
A senator from Wisconsin who ran for the presidency of 1924 on the Progressive party's ticket. Their platform called for government ownership of the railroads and relief for farmers and it lashed out at monopolies. He lost however to Coolidge.
Alfred E. Smith
He ran for president in the 1928 election for the Democrat Party. He was known for his drinking and he lost the election to Herbert Hoover. Prohibition was one of the issues of the campaign. He was the first Roman Catholic to run for president, and it was during a time many people were prejudice toward Catholics.
Ohio Gang
A group of poker-playing, men that were friends of President Warren Harding. Harding appointed them to offices and they used their power to gain money for themselves. They were involved in scandals that ruined Harding's reputation even though he wasn't involved.
Washington conference
1921-1922 this was a meeting between most major world powers. This meeting was for the disarmament of these countries. This meeting also prevented the U. S. and Britain from fortifying their Far East possessions and established the Four Power treaty. The major powers promised to preserve the status-quo in the Pacific. Reduced the number of large battleships for the major powers.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
(1929) created by Frank B. Kellogg and Aristide Briand, this pact promised to never make war again and settle all disputes peacefully. Sixty-two nations signed this pact. The treaty was hard to enforce and had no provisions for the use of economic or military force against a nation that may break the treaty.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law
In 1922, Congress passed this law. As a result, foreign tariff 's became as high as 38.5%. This was designed to equalize the price of American and Foreign products
Teapot Dome Scandel
One of many scandals under Harding. Involved priceless naval oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming. Albert B. Fall got Secertary of Navy, Denby to transfer valuable goods to Interior Department secretly. Harry Sinclair and Edward L Dohney were released the lands after paying a large bribe. Scandal polluted governments prestiege and made public wonder about the sufficency of government and undermined faith in courts
McNary -Haugen Bill
This bill was favored by agricultural states. It was pushed to keep high prices on agricultural products by authorizing the government to purchase agricultural surpluses and selling them. The losses of the government could be repaid by a special tax on the farmers. It was passed twice by Congress and vetoed twice by Coolidge.
Dawes Plan
Calvin Coolidge's running mate, Charles Dawes is largely responsible for this plan of 1924; an attempt to pay off the damages from WWI. This intricate monetary "merry-go-round", as it was often called, gave money to to Germany who then paid France and Britain for debts of the war. Former allies then paid the U.S. When the Depression hit, the "merry-go-round" stopped. Finland was the only nation to pay off their debts to the very last penny in 1976. The U.S. never received the money it was owed.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Began as a protective measure to assist farmers, but turned out to be the highest protective tariff in the nation's peace time history. It raised the duty on goods from 38.5 percent to 60 percent in 1930.
Black Tuesday
It occurred on October 29, 1929, when 16,410,030 shares of stocks were sold in a save-who-may scramble. It marked the beginning of the Great Depression.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
(1932) This corporation became a government lending bank. It was designed to provide indirect assistance to insurance companies, banks, agricultural organizations, railroads, and even hard-pressed state and local governments. Under this plan, to preserve individualism, no loans were made to individuals. In the election of 1932, Hoover ran against FDR and this was part of Hoover's plan.
Bonus Army
A group of almost 20,000 World War I veterans who were hard-hit victims of the depression, who wanted what the government owed them for their services and "saving" democracy. They marched to Washington and set up public camps and erected shacks on vacant lots. They tried to intimidate Congress into paying them, but Hoover had them removed by the army, which shed a negative light on Hoover.
Hoover-Stimson doctrine
This said that the United States would not recognize any territorial acquisitions that were taken over by force. (This doctrine is related to Japanese aggression in Manchuria in 1931)
Federal Housing Authority
Established by FDR during the depression in order to provide low-cost housing coupled with sanitary condition for the poor
Herbert Hoover
He was the head of the Food Administration during World War I. He became the Secretary of Commerce and encouraged businesses to regulate themselves. He was a Republican known for his integrity who won the election of 1928. He had to deal with the Great Crash of 1929, which caused the Great Depression. He signed the Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act. His belief in "rugged individualism" kept him from giving people direct relief during the Great Depression.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
--- governor of NY -- 5th cousin to Theodore Roosevelt --- wealthy family -- went to Harvard -- served as secretery of the navy -- was suave and conciliatory -- handicapped --came up with New Deal --- elected as a democrat President in 1932 --elected 4 times (only one to do so) --dealt with Great Depression and WWI
Eleanor Roosevelt
Wife of Franklin Roosevelt; she travelled everywhere with him on behalf of all his campaigns; she became the most active First Lady in history. She fought for the rights of all Americans.
Harry Hopkins
The head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). A friend and advisor to President FDR. He was very involved in reforms in the Great Depression and in the 30's and 40's in such issues as unemployment and mortgages.
Frances Perkins
First woman appointed to a cabinet position. Appointed by FDR, she became Secretary of Labor. She received a lot of undeserved criticism from male politicians and businessmen.
Father Coughlin
Anti-New Deal Catholic Priest; began broadcasting in 1930; called the "microphone messiah"; slogan was "Social Justice"; silenced in 1942 when his broadcasts became too radical.
Huey Long
Nickname "Kingfish"; Senator of Louisiana. He pushed his "Share Our Wealth" program, which would make "Every Man a King". Long planned to run against FDR in the 1936 elections, but he was assassinated.
Francis Townshend
He was a retired physician who developed a plan in which the government would give monetary resources to senior citizens ages sixty and over. This plan was a type of pension for older Americans. He had a lot of followers. This people thought FDR wasn't doing enough.
Harold Ickes
He was Secretary of the interior known for his honesty; became head of the Public Works Administration (PWA); dealt with industrial recovery and unemployment relief by creating jobs (over thirty-four thousand project jobs for workers). His determination to prevent waste prevented maximum relief.
George W. Norris
He was a Senator from Nebraska, whose steadfast vision and zeal helped an act creating the Tennessee Valley Authority to be passed in 1933.
John L. Lewis
He was the leader of the United Mine Workers. He also formed the CIO (Committee for Industrial Organization). He led a "sit-down" strike on General Motors at Flint, Michigan in 1936. Unionists from the Republic Steel Co. wanted to join the CIO, and a fight broke out in 1937 called the Memorial Day Massacre. He is responsible for the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Acts (Wages and Hour Bill) which set minimum wage, overtime pay for work over 40 hours in one week, and kids under age 16 could not work.
Alfred M. Landon
He was the republican candidate in 1936. This honest and wealthy man from Kansas lost greatly to the Democrat Franklin Roosevelt. He had stressed balancing the budget.
Parity
A plan to help farmers injured from low prices and over-production. From 1909-1914, farms had enjoyed a period of prosperity. This was the price placed on a product that gave it the same value, in buying power, that it had from 1909-1914. The AAA paid farmers to reduce production. The payment for this came from taxes gotten from the makers of expensive farm equipment.
New Deal
After Franklin Roosevelt was inaugurated in 1933, he decided the U.S. must improve economically to recover from the Great Depression. His policy focused on relief, recovery, and reform. Short term goals were relief and immediate recovery. Permanent recovery and reform were done by long-range goals. Programs were established to improve unemployment, regulate minimum wage, and reform many other social issues.
Brain Trust(s)
Small group of reform minded intellectuals, mainly young college professors. Considered much of the New Deal legislation and worked as a kitchen cabinet for Franklin Roosevelt.
The three R's
Roosevelt's New Deal programs aimed at the three R's- relief, recovery, and reform. Roosevelt's plan was announced on March 4, 1933 to lift the burden of the Great Depression.
Glass-Steagall Act
In 1933, this act allowed the banks to reopen and it gave the president the power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
This organization was created by the Unemployment Relief Act of 1933. It provided employment in government camps for 3 million uniformed single, young men during the Great Depression. The work they were involved in included reforestation, fire fighting, flood control, and swamp drainage.
Works Progress Administration
Congress created this in 1935 as an agency that gave jobs to people who needed them. They worked on bridges, roads, and buildings. They spent 11 billion dollars and gave almost 9 million people jobs. It was one of the New Deal Agencies.
National Recovery Act
During the Great Depression, this act was created in 1933 as a helping hand for industry, labor, and the unemployed. It granted labor additional benefits and guaranteed the right to organize through representatives of their own choosing. It was a part of Franklin D. Roosevelt's new plan, but was later declared unconstitutional. Symbol was the "Blue Eagle"
Tennessee Valley Authority
First Government owned corporation. Started to create jobs and build dams in the Tennessee River Valley to supply electricity to poorer areas after the depression.
Social Security Act of 1935
It created a federal insurance program based on the automatic collection of taxes from employees and employers throughout people's working careers. They would receive this money in a monthly pension when they reached the age of 65. The unemployed, disabled, and mothers with dependent children would also receive this money.
Wagner Act
Same as the National Labor Relations Act (1935) and set up the National Labor Relations Board and reasserted the right of labor to engage in self-organization and to bargain collectively.
National Labor Relation Board
Created by the National Labor Relations Act, also known as the Wagner Act it was created in the 1930's by congressman Wagner who was sympathetic to labor unions. The National Labor Relation Board was an administrative board that gave laborers the rights of self-organization and collective bargaining.
Congress of Industrial Organizations
Also known as the CIO, this labor union formed in the ranks of the AFL. It consisted of unskilled workers. The AFL got scared of their influence on workers and suspended all members of the CIO. In 1938 it broke with the AF of L. By 1940 it had 4 million members.
Liberty League
This consisted of the conservatives that opposed the New Deal introduced by FDR. Their common opinion was that FDR was pushing the United States too close to socialism. They saw the New Deal as being more apt to hurt United States economics than to help it. (Herbert Hoover and General Motors)
Twentieth and Twenty-first Amendments
The Twentieth Amendment changed the calender of Congressional sessions and the date of the presidential inauguration (January 20th). In short, it shortened the length of lame duck periods for the presidency. The Twenty-first Amendment to the Constitution ended prohibition and allowed the distribution and drinking of alcoholic beverages to commence once again.
Court-packing scheme
Roosevelt tried to put an extra justice on the Supreme Court for every justice over 70 years old who wouldn't retire. These justices would be supporters of Roosevelt and there would be a maximum of 15 judges. The plan failed. Congress would not accept.
Keynesian economics
Keynes looked at the economy in a wider sense: macroeconomics. He theorized that the relationship between supply and demand was critical: when the demand doesn’t meet expectations there is unemployment and depression while if demand surpasses production inflation occurs. The solution is to have the government spend while maintaining low taxes and when there is demand that a tight budget should be created.