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18 Cards in this Set

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What are the two major functions of adipocytes?
Energy storage & hormone secretion (endocrine function)
Give a few examples of adipocytokines
Protective adipokines- Adiponectin, leptin,

Inflammatory cytokines- TNF alpha, IL6, PAI-1
What is lipodystrophy? What conditions is it associated with? How is it treated?
Absence of adipose tissue. May be associated with diabetes and severe insulin resistance

Treated with adiponectin.
What percentage of energy expenditure is basal metabolic rate? What percentage is physical activity?
BMR- 60-70%

PA- 30%
What is the equation for BMI?
Values associated with underweight, normal, overweight, obesity I, obesity II, obesity III

In addition to BMI, what else is used to assess obesity? Normal values?
weight in kg / (height in m)^2
Underweight <18.5, normal 18.5-24.9, overweight 25-29.9, obesity I 30-34.99, obesity II 35-39.99, obesity III >40

Waist circumference also used, <35 in for women, <40 in for men
Most accurate way to assess body fat?
Percent body fat mass calculated with DEXA (research only)
2 classifications of obesity based on shape?
Apple (android) & pean (gynoid)

Android- most weight above waist
Gynoid- most weight below waist, mostly visceral fat
In the past 40 years, has the percentage of obese people changed? Overweight people?
% Obese has gone up
% overweight has stayed about the same
Name a few health risks associated with obesity
Diabetes, atherosclerosis, HTN, CAD, gall bladder disease, some cancers
For every 5 greater than a BMI of 25, mortality risk increases by?
30%

Stage II and III obesity are associated with a 2-3 fold increase
Changes in the average US diet since 1970?
Approximately 500 more calories consumed per day
With increased caloric intake and sedentary lifestyle, we would expect massive increases in weight gain. Why are these gains not observed?
More calories are consumed (BMR is increased), less calories are stored
Animal model- changes in BMR depending on starvation or forced feeding?
Starvation- BMR decreases
Force feeding- BMR increases
Which regions of the brain make up the "hunger center?" Which make up the "satiety center?" Lesions will lead to what?
Hunger center- lateral hypothal. Lesion leads to satiety

Satiety center- ventromedial hypothal. Lesion leads to overeating and obesity
What has replaced the idea of hunger/satiety centers? How does this work?
Neurocircuits in the arcuate nucleus & other nuclei modulate these behaviors.

Neurons which coexpress NPY/AgRP stimulate feeding
Neurons which coexpress alphaMSH/CART inhibit feeding
In addition to its effects on feeding, what other effects does this protein have? Why?
Inhibits feeding (along with CART) @ MC4 receptor in hypothal. Also antagonizes melanocytes (MC1 receptor) and causes mice to be yellow instead of black.
In addition to inhibiting eating, what other role does the MC4 receptor play? If mutated?

Where does alpha MSA come from?
Increases basal metabolic rate (also works with MC3).

If mutated, may lead to increased obesity.

It is derived from the POMC gene.
What does leptin do? Leptin deficiency/resistance?
It increases activity of alpha-MSH neurons (inhibits feeding). Secreted in proportion to fat mass. Receptors in hypothal.

If deficient, can be treated with leptin. If resistant, more difficult to treat. These patients will be obese, hyperphagic.