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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
computer
device to transform data
bit
binary digit representing smallest unit of data
have one of two states: 0 or 1
byte
string of bits to store one number or character
central processing unit
area of computer system that manipulates numbers, symbols, letters
primary storage
temp storage for program instructions and data
arithmetic-logic unit
performs principle logic and arithmetic operations
control unit
controls and coordinates parts of computer
machine cycle
series of operations to process a machine instruction
random access memory (ram)
primary storage of data that can access any location in same amount of time
read-only memory (rom)
memory chips with program instructions
only read, cannot be written to
microprocessor
large scale circuit technology that integrates computer's memory, logic, and control on a chip
megahertz
measure of speed or pacing events
1 megahertz=1million cycles per second
reducted instruction set computing
technology to enhance speed of microprocessors
embed most frequent instructions only
parallel processing
more than one instruction can be processed at a time
massively parallel computers
computer that use 100/1000s processing chips to attack large problem(s)
secondary storage
long term, nonvolatile storage of data
magnetic disk
second storage medium
data stored on magnetic spots on hard or floppy disk
hard disk
mangetic disk used in large computer systems
floppy disk
removable magnetic disk storage
redundant array of inexpensive disks (raid)
disk storage
pack 100 smaller disk drives in large unit
compact disk read-only memory
(cd-rom)
read-only optical disk storage for images, references, and other applications
cd-rw
optical disk storage that can be rewritten many times
dvd (digital video disk)
high-capacity optical storage medium
magnetic tape
cheap, secondary storage
large volumes of information stored by magnetized and nonmagnetized spots on tape
network-attached storage
high speed raid storage devices so networks in devices can access through server
storage area network
network for storage that connects storage devices (tape libraries, disk arrays)
radio-freqency identification (rfid)
devices with tiny tags with microchips of information on item and its location
batch processing
collect and process data and store until needed
online processing
collect and process data transactions immediately
mainframe
largest category of computer
midrange computer
middle-size computer
good for smaller organizations
minicomputer
middle-range computer
universities, factories, research labs
server
provide software and resources over network
server farm
group of servers available to subscribers
personal computer
small desktop computer
workstation
desktop with powerful graphics and math capabilites
can perform many actions at once
supercomputer
perform complex computations and rapidly
distributed processing
distribute processing work to multiple computers
centralized processing
processing by one large central computer
client/server computing
splits processing between "clients" and "servers"
client
user point-of-entry
downsizing
transfer applications from large computer to small computer
network computer
desktop that doesnt store software or data locally
peer-to-peer computing
processing that links computer via internet/private networks
grid computing
many computers used for large complex problem
program
series of instructions
system software
progams to manage computer resources
application software
programs written to perform functions
operating system
system software to control computer activities
source code
instructions that must be translated into machine language
compiler
software that translate into machine language
graphical user interface
graphic icons and mouse to issue commands
open-source software
modify program code to fix errors
-linux
machine language
programming language
0 and 1 binary code
cobol
common business oriented langugae
programming langugae for applications
process large data files
c
powerful programming laugage
tight control and effecient use of resources
visual basic
programming tool for creating applications on windows
fourth-generation language
programming for less-skilled people
natural language
programming language similar to human language
query language
software that provides instant online answers to requests
object-oriented programming
software development that combine data and procedures in one object
java
programming language
run on any computer regardless of operating system
uses "applets" little programs
hypertext markup language (html)
page description langugage for web pages
xml (extensible markup language)
general-purpose language describe structure of document and supports links to other docs
web and non-web applications
xhtml
html + xml
more flexibility than html
software package
set of programs that eliminates need to write specific software program
middleware
software connect 2 applications to allow them to communicate and exchage data
enterprise application integration software
software that ties multiple applications to support enterprise integration
capacity planning
predict when computer hardware system will be saturated
make sure has enough power for current and future needs
stability
computer expand to serve many users without breaking down
storage service provider
third-party provider that rents web space
application service provider
company rent software applications
utility computing
companies pay for resrouces used during time period
major components of a contemporary computer system
central processor
primary storage
secondary storage
input devices
output devices
communication devices
major components of cpu
control unit: coordinate/control parts
arithmetic-logic unit: logical and arithmetic operations
serial processing
process one instruction at time
parallel processing
process many instructions at time
problems broken into smaller parts
use few expensive, specialized chips
massively parallel processing
huge networks work on problem
use many inexpensive chips
major types of software
system software: operating system, computer programs to control cpu
application software: programs for specific tasks or functions required by end users
operating system
manages general computing environment and activities
multiprogramming
allow multiple programs to share resources at same time
xml
extension of html
live and more structured language content