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74 Cards in this Set

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Malaria causes how many deaths per year?
> 1 M
Neurological signs with Malaria occur with this species
Plasmodium Falciparum
Malaria vector
FEMALE ANOPHELES MOSQUITO
Places with endemic Malaria
Africa
S. America
Mexico
S. Europe
Malaria Exoerythrocyte form occurs in the _______
liver
Malaria:

Transmitted by __1__ mosquito -> mosquito bite releases __2__ into bloodstream -> carried to the liver and infects hepatocytes -> in hepatocytes, sporozoite divides into __3__ --> infect __4__ --> In RBC's Merozoites develop into __5__ -> divide into many __6__ --> burst RBC's
1. Anopheles
2. Sporozoite
3. Merozoite
4. RBC's
5. Trophozoite
6. Merozoites
Gametocyte of Falciparum malaria has this shape
Banana
Type of ring that indicates Falciparum
double-ring
Explain the pathology of Falciparum in the Brain
Falciparum causes "knobs" in infected RBC's and cause them to stick to eachother and capillaries --> vessel occlusion and hemorrhage
This indicates Plasmodium infected erythrocytes
Brown pigment (Falciparum metabolizes hemoglobin to form pigment)
Malaria symptoms
cyclical fever and chills
Anemia
Hepatosplenomegaly
Toxoplasmosis:
-seroprevalence in adult pop: 1
-most infections are __2__
-__3__ is the rule
1. 30-50%
2. asymptomatic = "good" parasite
3. premunition = once infected, always infected
Definitive host for Toxoplasmosis
Cats: shed millions of Oocysts in their feces after primary infection
-only animals capable of producing OOCYSTS
Toxoplasma __1__, present in tissue __2__, are capable of recredescence in IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOSTS
1. Bradyzoites
2. cysts
Toxoplasmosis tissue cysts are found in all tissues, but _____ relapse is the most common and most serious
CNS
Mainstay of treatment for Toxoplasma in IC'ed population
Sulfonamide + Pyrimethamine
IC'ed patients with these symptoms should receive a CT
headache
Neurological signs
When does Serology of Toxoplasmosis work well
only in Immunocompetent
Tissue cysts contain slowy replicating _________
bradyzoites
Is there an immune response to toxoplasmosis cysts
little, if any
Rupture of Toxoplasmic cysts in IC'ed patients results in continuously replicating _______
Tachyzoites
Tachyzoites infect these cells
any cell and rapidly reproduce and cause cell lysis
Toxoplasmosis is part of this Syndrome
TORCH
Congenital Toxoplasmosis infection is possible only during ______ infection of the mother
Acute
Symptoms of Congenital Toxoplasmosis
Mental Retardation

Chorioretinitis -> blindness

*usually occur later after birth
Risk of Toxoplasma transmission is greatest during this trimester
3rd trimester, but disease is milder
Infection with Toxoplasma during the 1st trimester often results in....
spontaneous abortion
Free living Amebae that can cause corneal ulcers and ophthalmitis in contact lens wearers or in contaminated hot tubs
Acanthamoeba
Free living Amebae found in farm ponds and causes frontal meningoencephalitis
Naegleria fowleri
Access to the CNS of Naegleria Fowleri causing Encephalitis always occurs via the _______
Cribriform plate
Histologic characteristics of Naegleria fowleri
Large size and pale nuclei
Leishmania vector
Phlebotomus Sand Fly
Species causing Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
L. Mexicana
L. Braziliensis
Species causing Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (nasal-oral)
L. braziliensis
Species causing Visceral Leishmaniasis
L. donovani
Leishmania reservoirs
humans
dogs
rodents
Leishmania replicate in _______
macrophages
Explain the Promastigote form of Leishmania
flagellated form outside of Macrophages
Explain the Amistigote form of Leishmania
nonflagellated form within Macrophages
Agent of Chagas' disease
Trypanosoma Cruzi
Age range for Chagas' disease
20-40 yoa
Pathology of Chagas' disease
Cardiomegaly
-arrhythmias

Megaesophagus
Megacolon
Vector for Chagas' disease
Triatoma Reduviid bud
Primary Lesion of Chagas' disease
Swelling around the eye (orbital edema) = Romana's sign
This is pathognomonic of Chaga's Myocarditis
apical thinning
Agent of African Trypanosomiasis
Trypanosoma brucei
Vector of T. brucei
Tsetse fly
Unique feature of Trypanosoma brucei
can have antigenic variation of surface coat to escape host antibodies
Where does T. brucei replicate
bloodstream
Synonym for African Trypanosomiasis
African sleeping sickness
3 clinical stages of African sleeping sickness
1. Chancre = scar at bite site

2. Hemolymphatic

3. Meningoencephalitis
What do Trypanosomes look like within bloodstream?
Seahorses
T. brucei causes somnolence via cerebral lesion resulting from ________ caused by microbe invading ________
Vasculitis

Endothelial cells of cerebral small vessels
Plasma cells in a brain histology of African Trypanosomiasis often exhibit ________
Russel bodies = collections of protein (Ab) in the cytoplasm
Sign during Hemolymphatic stage of African Trypanosomiasis
Winterbottom's sign = lymphadenopathy along the back of the neck
Exo-erythrocyte form of Malaria (plasmodium) in a HEPATOCYTE --> jaundice
What is this showing?
Plasmodium Falciparum
-can cause neurological signs in Malaria
What protozoa is this guy?
Plasmodium falciparum = cause "knobs" in RBC's causing them to clump in vessels

Cerebral Malaria
What Protozoa?
What site?
What is happening?
Plasmodium Falciparum = brown dots due to hemoglobin metabolization
Protozoa in this pic?
Toxoplasma gondii

Cats
Protozoa?
How transmitted?
Toxoplasma gondii
Protozoa?
Toxoplasma cysts containing Bradyzoites

If ruptures = Tachyzoites
usually only ruptures in IC'ed
What is this?
Toxoplasma gondii
Tachyzoites that have ruptured from a cyst
Protozoa?
What are these called?
Toxoplasma gondii
Congenital infection
-3rd trimester
Protozoa that caused this?
Toxoplasma gondii
Protozoa that causes Congenital Chorioretinitis and Mental Retardation?
Acanthamoeba = free-living
Protozoa that affects contact wearers causing corneal ulcers?
Naegleri fowleri

from Farm ponds
Protozoa that causes Frontal Meningoencephalitis?

Where is it found?
Naegleria fowleri

Free-living amebae are Large and have Pale nuclei
Protozoa?
How can you tell?
Leishmania
Protozoa?
Leishmania
Protozoa?
Trypanosoma Cruzi = Chagas

Romana sign = swelling of one eye
Protozoa?
What is the boy positive for?
Trypanosoma cruzi = Chagas
-Cardiomegaly
-Mega-esophagus
-Megacolon
Parasite responsible for these pathologies?
Trypanosoma Cruzi = chagas
-monocyte response
-chronic myocarditis
Parasite?
Trypanosoma brucei = African sleeping sickness
3 stages
-Chancre
-Hemolymphatic
-Meningoencephalitic
Protozoa?