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87 Cards in this Set

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What is an example of a positive transcription control?
Positive control means a protein binds to the DNA which increases transcription. (example: Catabolic activator protein)
regulatory proteins= DNA binding proteins
true
Bacteria have a variety of pathways that allow them to use different materials. Genes that code for a particular pathway are clustered together.
True
True or False: RNA polymerase sits on the promoter
True
For repression/inducing, you only need to know the first few steps
Instruction to myself
cyclic AMP is an internal sensor for the cell that tells how much glucose is available
true
E. coli and its viruses are called ______________ because of their frequent use by researchers in studies that reveal broad biological principles
model systems
Viruses are very small infectious particles consisting of _____________ enclosed in a _____________ and, in some cases, a ______________
nucleic acid, protein coat, membranous envelope
True or False: Viral genomes may consist of Double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA
True.
______________ have the most complex capsids found among viruses
Bacteriaphages
True or False: Phages have an elongated capsid head that encloses their DNA
True.
True or False: Phages lack a capsid head to enclose their DNA
False.
True or False: A protein tailpiece attaches the phage to the host and injects the phage DNA inside
True.
A protein _________ attaches the phage to the host and injects the phage DNA inside
tailpiece
A ________ tailpiece attaches the phage to the host and injects the phage DNA inside
protein
Contributors to the genetic diversity of bacteria:
* _______________
* _______________
* _______________
* Rapid reproduction
* mutation
* genetic recombination
Contributors to the genetic diversity of bacteria:
* _______________
* mutation
* _______________
* Rapid reproduction
* mutation
* genetic recombination
True or False: The bacterial chromosome is usually a circular DNA molecule with few associated proteins
True
The bacterial chromosome is usually a ________ DNA molecule with few associated proteins
circular
True or False: The bacterial chromosome is usually a linear DNA molecule with few associated proteins
False. The bacterial chromosome is usually a circular DNA molecule with few associated proteins
In bacteria one can easily identify new mutations by growing bacteria in medium that does not have ______________.
amino acid
True or False: In bacteria one can easily identify new mutations by growing bacteria in medium that does not have amino acid.
True
True or False: In bacteria one can easily identify new mutations by growing bacteria in medium that does not have carbon.
False: In bacteria one can easily identify new mutations by growing bacteria in medium that does not have amino acid.
Mutant bacteria that require added amino acids are called ____________. Their wild type counterparts are called ____________.
auxotrophs; prototrophs
True or False: Mutant bacteria that require added amino acids are called auxotrophs. Their wild type counterparts are called prototrophs
True
True or False: Mutant bacteria that require added amino acids are called prototrophs. Their wild type counterparts are called auxotrophs.
False: Mutant bacteria that require added amino acids are called auxotrophs. Their wild type counterparts are called prototrophs
Three processes bring bacterial DNA from different individuals together:
* ______________
* ______________
* ______________
Three processes bring bacterial DNA from different individuals together:
Transformation
Transduction
Conjugation
Three processes bring bacterial DNA from different individuals together:
* ______________
* ______________
* Conjugation
Three processes bring bacterial DNA from different individuals together:
Transformation
Transduction
Conjugation
What is Transformation?
Transformation is the alteration of a bacterial cell’s genotype and phenotype by the uptake of naked, foreign DNA from the surrounding environment
What is shown here?
Transformation
What is transduction?
In the process known as transduction, phages carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another
“Maleness,” the ability to form a sex pilus and donate DNA, results from an _____________ as part of the chromosome or as a plasmid
F (for fertility) factor
True or False: “Maleness,” the ability to form a sex pilus and donate DNA, results from an F factor as part of the chromosome or as a plasmid
True
True or False: “Maleness,” the ability to form a sex pilus and donate DNA, results from an M factor as part of the chromosome or as a plasmid
False. “Maleness,” the ability to form a sex pilus and donate DNA, results from an F factor as part of the chromosome or as a plasmid
True or False: Plasmids, including the F plasmid, are small, circular, self-replicating DNA molecules
True
True or False: Plasmids, including the F plasmid, are small, linear, self-replicating DNA molecules
False: Plasmids, including the F plasmid, are small, circular, self-replicating DNA molecules
A cell with a built-in F factor is called an _________ cell
Hfr
The F factor of an Hfr cell brings some ________________ along when transferred to an F– cell
chromosomal DNA
True or False: R plasmids confer resistance to various antibiotics
True.
True or False: F plasmids confer resistance to various antibiotics
False: R plasmids confer resistance to various antibiotics
True or False: R plasmids confer resistance to T2 bacteriaphages.
False: R plasmids confer resistance to various antibiotics
_______________, often called “jumping genes,” contribute to genetic shuffling in bacteria
Transposable elements
Transposable elements, often called “_____________,” contribute to genetic shuffling in bacteria
jumping genes
True or False: The simplest transposable elements, called insertion sequences, exist only in bacteria
True
The simplest transposable elements, called ______________, exist only in bacteria
insertion sequences
The simplest transposable elements, called insertion sequences, exist only in ___________
bacteria
True or False: The simplest transposable elements, called conjugated sequences, exist only in bacteria
False: The simplest transposable elements, called insertion sequences, exist only in bacteria
True or False: An insertion sequence has a single gene for transposase, an enzyme catalyzing movement of the insertion sequence from one site to another within the genome
True.
An _______________ has a single gene for transposase, an enzyme catalyzing movement of the insertion sequence from one site to another within the genome
insertion sequence
An insertion sequence has [how many genes] for transposase, an enzyme catalyzing movement of the insertion sequence from one site to another within the genome
1
An insertion sequence has a single gene for ______________, an enzyme catalyzing movement of the insertion sequence from one site to another within the genome
transposase
Transposable elements called ______________ are longer and more complex than insertion sequences
transposons
True or False: Transposable elements called transposons are longer and more complex than insertion sequences
True
True or False: Transposable elements called transposons are simpler and more rare than insertion sequences
False: Transposable elements called transposons are longer and more complex than insertion sequences
In addition to DNA required for transposition, ____________ have extra genes that “go along for the ride,” such as genes for antibiotic resistance
transposons
What are Transposons?
Transposable elements called transposons are longer and more complex than insertion sequences
True or False: Genes are expressed (transcribed and translated) when their products are needed
True
Genes are expressed (transcribed and translated) when _______________
their products are needed
True or False: Genes are expressed (transcribed and translated) during DNA synthesis.
False: Genes are expressed (transcribed and translated) when their products are needed
Metabolic control occurs on two levels:
* _________________
* _________________
Metabolic control occurs on two levels:
Adjusting activity of metabolic enzymes
Regulating genes that encode metabolic enzymes
Operons are composed of:
* ______________
* ______________
* ______________
Operons are composed of:
An operator, an “on-off” switch
A promoter
Genes for metabolic enzymes
An operon can be switched ____ by a protein called a repressor
off
An operon can be switched off by a protein called a __________
repressor
A _____________ is a small molecule that cooperates with a repressor to switch an operon off
corepressor
A corepressor is a small molecule that cooperates with a repressor to switch an operon ____
off
A corepressor is a small molecule that cooperates with a ___________ to switch an operon off
repressor
When the repressor binds to the operator, transcription is __________
prevented
Repressible and Inducible Operons: Two Types of ____________ Gene Regulation
negative
A repressible operon is one that is usually ___
on
The trp operon is a ________ operon
repressible
An ___________ operon is one that is usually off
inducible
An inducible operon is one that is usually ____; a molecule called an inducer inactivates the repressor and turns on transcription
off
An inducible operon is one that is usually off; a molecule called an __________ inactivates the repressor and turns on transcription
inducer
_______ & ________ figured out the first operon in E.coli: lac operon. They got the Nobel prize for their work
Jacob and Monod
The primary source of food for bacteria is __________
glucose
Inducible enzymes usually function in ______________
catabolic pathways
Repressible enzymes usually function in _____________
anabolic pathways
_____________ enzymes usually function in anabolic pathways
Repressible
Regulation of the trp and lac operons involves ________ control of genes because operons are switched off by the active form of the repressor
negative
Regulation of the trp and lac operons involves ________ control of genes
negative
Tryptophan is a _________
corepressor
Some operons are also subject to positive control through a stimulatory activator protein, such as _________________
catabolite activator protein
catabolite activator protein is an example of a [positive or negative] control.
Positive
When glucose (a preferred food source of E. coli ) is scarce, the lac operon is _________ by the binding of CAP
activated
When glucose levels increase, CAP detaches from the lac operon, turning it ____
off
Process in which genes normally off get turned on is known as _____________
induction
Lactose present, glucose scarce (cAMP level ____): abundant __________ synthesized
high; lac mRNA